AR-RaheeQ Al-Makhtum (THE
SEALED NECTAR)- Memoirs of the Noble Prophet
Author: Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri - Jamia Salafia - India-
Translated by : Issam Diab
Pages : 1. 2. 3.4.5 .6 .7 .8 .9.10 .11 .12 .13 .14 .15.16 .17
The third and last stage of the
life of the Messenger embodies the fruitful
results of his call to Islam, which were the consequences of long-timed
holy fights in the way of Allâh (Jihad), troubles, toil,
disturbances, trials and a lot of bloody conflicts and battles,
which lasted for over twenty years.
The conquest of Makkah was
considered the most serious profit achieved by Muslims during
those years. For it affected the course of events and
consequently altered the Arabs’ whole life. It was a decisive
distinction between preconquest and post-conquest periods. For
Quraish, at that time, was in the eyes of Arabs the defenders and
helpers of Arabs. Other Arabs are only their ancillaries. The
submission of Quraish is, therefore, estimated to be a final
elimination of paganism in the Arabian Peninsula.
This stage can be divided into
two main phases:
The phase of: (1) holy wars and
(2) the tribes and people’s
race to embrace Islam.
Being so close and rather
inseparable, the two phases of this stage intervene in such a way
that a happening of one phase occurs during the progress of the
other. However, we have preferred — for expository purposes —
to deal with these two phases distinctively. The fighting phase
was given the priority in order, due to the fact that it is more
intimate and fit than the other.
The conquest of Makkah which
came forth as a consequence of a swift blow astounded both the
Arabs and other tribes who realized that they were doomed and had
to submit to the new situation as a fait accompli.
Some of the fierce, powerful proud tribes did not submit and
favoured resistance. Ahead of these were the septs of Hawazin and
Thaqif. Nasr, Jashm and Sa‘d bin Bakr and people of Bani Hilal
— all of whom of Qais ‘Ailan. They thought that they were too
mighty to admit or surrender to such a victory. So they met Malik
bin ‘Awf An-Nasri and made up their mind to proceed fighting
against the Muslims.
The Enemy’s March and their
Encampment at Awtas:
When Malik bin ‘Awf — the
general leader — decided to march and fight the Muslims, he
made his countrypeople take their wealth, women and children with
them to Awtas — which is a valley in Hawazin land and is quite
near Hunain. It differs from Hunain in its being adjacent to Dhi-Al-Majaz
which is around ten miles from Makkah in ‘Arafat’s direction.<
The War-experienced Man
wrongs the Leader’s Judgement:
As soon as they had camped in
Awtas, people crowded round Malik. The old sane Duraid bin As-Simmah,
who was well-known as a war-experienced man, and who was among
those who gathered round Malik, asked: "What valley are we
in?" "In Awtas," they said. "What a good
course it is for horses! It is neither a sharp pointed height nor
a loosed soiled plain. What? Why do I hear camels’ growling,
the donkeys’ braying, the children’s cries and the sheep
bleating?" asked Duraid. They said: "Malik bin ‘Awf
had made people bring their women, properties and children with
them." So he called Malik and asked him what made him do
such a thing. Malik said that his aim was to have everybody’s
family and properties around them so that they fight fiercely to
protect them." "I swear by Allâh that you are nothing
but a shepherd," answered Duraid, "Do you believe that
there is anything whatsoever, can stand in the way of a defeated
one or stop him from fleeing? If you win the battle you avail
nothing but a man with a sword and a spear; but if you lose you
will bring disgrace on your people and properties," then he
resumed his talk and went on wondering about some septs and their
leaders. "O Malik, thrusting the distinguished people of
Hawazin into the battlefield will avail you nothing. Raise them
up to where they can be safe. Then make the young people mount
their horses and fight. If you win, those whom you tarried will
follow you, but if you were the loser it would be a loss of a
battle, but your kinsmen, people and properties would not be lost."
But Malik, the general leader,
refused this suggestion. "By Allâh," he said, "I
will not do such a thing. You must have grown a senile. Hawazin
have to obey me, or else I will lean my body against this sword
so that it penetrates through my back." He rejected any sort
of contribution of Duraid’s in that concern.
"We obey you," said
his people, Duraid consequently said: "Today is a day that I
have not missed but surely I will not be tempted to witness."
Reconnoitering the Weapons of
the Messenger of Allâh :
The spies that Malik had already
dispatched to spy Muslim forces, returned with their limbs cut
off. "Woe unto you! What happened to you?" Said Malik.
They said: "We have seen distinguished people on spotted
horsebacks. What you see, would not have happened if we had been
Reconnoitering the Enemy’s
News about the enemy’s
marching were conveyed to the Messenger of Allâh , so he sent out Al-Aslami
with orders to mix with people, stay with them so that he would
be able to know their news and to convey it to the Messenger of
Allâh when he
turns back. That was exactly what he managed to do.
The Messenger of Allâh leaves Makkah for
On Shawwal, the nineteenth, the
captive day, the Messenger of Allâh left Makkah accompanied
by twelve thousand Muslims. Ten thousand of those had previously
shared in Makkah Conquest. A great number of the other two
thousand, who were Makkans, had recently embraced Islam. That
march was on the nineteenth day of his conquest to Makkah. He
borrowed a hundred armours with their equipment from Safwan bin
Omaiyah. He appointed ‘Itab bin Usaid as a governor over Makkah.
When it was evening time, a horseman came to the Messenger of Allâh
and said: "I
have climbed up so and so mountains and came across Hawazin with
their riding camels, livestock and sheep. Hawazin wholly were
gathered together there." The Messenger of Allâh smiled then and said:
"They will all be Muslims’ spoils tomorrow, if Allâh will."
That night Anas bin Abi Murthid Al-Ghanawi volunteered to guard.<
On their way to Hunain they saw
a great green Nabk plant, that was called Dhat-Anwat
(the one with suspenders). That was because the Arabs used to
hang their weapons on it, slay beasts under it and keep to it. So
some of army members asked the Messenger of Allâh to make them a Nabk
with suspenders as the one they had. "Allâh is the Greatest
of all!" He said, "I swear by the One in Whose Hand is
Muhammad’s soul, that you have just said what the people of
Moses said to him. They said ‘Make us a god as the one they
have.’ Surely you are ignorant people. These are Sunnah,
but you will follow and comply with the modes of life of those
who preceded you."
Seeing how great in number the
army was, some of them said: "We shall not be defeated."
Their statement sounded hard upon the Messenger of Allâh .
The Islamic Army stunned the
Archers and the Attackers:
On Wednesday night the tenth of
Shawwal, the Muslim army arrived at Hunain. Malik bin ‘Awf, who
had previously entered the valley by night, gave orders to his
army to hide inside the valley and lurk for the Muslims on roads,
entrances, narrow hiding places. His orders to his men were to
hurl stones at Muslims whenever they caught sight of them and
then to make a one-man attack against them.
At early dawn the Messenger of
mobilizing his army and distributing posts and flags to people.
In the dark and just before dawn the Muslims moved towards Hunain
Valley. They started descending into it unaware of the presence
of an enemy lurking for them inside the valley. So at the moment
they were camping, arrows began showering intensively at them,
whereas the enemy’s battalions started a fierce attack against
the Muslims, who had to retreat in disorder and utter confusion.
It was such a shatteringly defeat that Abu Sufyan bin Harb, who
had recently embraced Islam, said that their retreat would not
stop till they got to the Red Sea. Jablah or Kildah bin Al-Junaid
commented on that by saying: "Surely magic has grown
The Messenger of Allâh turned to the right and
said: "Come on, people! I am the Messenger of Allâh. I am
Muhammad, the son of Abdullah." Those who stoodfast by him
were only few Emigrants and some of his kinsmen. The matchless
bravery of the Prophet was then brought to
light. He went on and on in his attempts to make his mule
standfast in the face of the disbelievers while saying loudly:
"Truly saying, I am
I am the (grand) son of Abdul Muttalib."
However, Abu Sufyan, who was
then holding the rein of the Prophet’s mule, and Al-‘Abbas,
who was holding its stirrup; were endeavouring to make it halt.
The Messenger of Allâh dismounted and asked his
Lord to render him help.
"O, Allâh, send down
Mulsims’ return to the
Battlefield, and the fierceness of the Fight:
The Messenger of Allâh ordered his uncle Al-‘Abbas
— who was a sonorous voiced man — to call out on the
followers. As loudly as he could, Al-‘Abbas shouted: "Where
are the lancers?" "By Allâh," Al-‘Abbas said,
"Upon hearing my voice calling them back, they turned round
to the battlefield as if they had been oryxes (wild cows) tending
towards their calves."
"Here we are, at your
service. Here we are." They said. There you see them trying to
stop their camels and reverse to the battle. He who was unable to
force his camel to turn back, would take his armour, fling it
round his neck, and hastily dismount his camel with his weapon in
his hand letting his camel move freely and run towards the voice
source. Voices would grow louder and louder till a hundred of
them gathered round the Prophet and resumed the fight.
Those who were called out upon
next were Al-Ansar, the Helpers, "O, folks of Al-Ansar!
Folks of Al-Ansar!"
The last group to be called out
upon were Bani Al-Harith bin Al-Khazraj. Muslims battalions
poured successively into the battlefield in the same manner that
they had left it. The stamina of both parties was superb. Both of
them stoodfast and fought fiercely. The Messenger of Allâh was so eagerly and
furiously watching the battle that he said:
"Now the fight has
Picking up a handful of earth,
he hurled it at their faces while saying:
"May your faces be
Their eyes were thick with dust
and the enemy began to retreat in utter confusion.
Reverse of Fortunes and the
Enemy’s utter Defeat:
Few hours had elapsed since the
earth-handful was hurled at the enemy’s faces, when they were
shatteringly defeated. About seventy men of Thaqif alone were
killed, and the Muslims plundered all their riding camels,
weapons and cattle.
Allâh, Glory is to Him, alluded
to this sudden change in the Qur’ân when He said:
"…and on the Day of
Hunain (battle) when you rejoiced at your great number
but it availed you naught and the earth, vast as it is,
was straitened for you, then you turned back in flight.
Then Allâh did send down His Sakinah (calmness,
tranquillity, and reassurance, etc.) on the Messenger (Muhammad
) and on the
believers, and sent down forces (angels) which you saw
not, and punished the disbelievers. Such is the
recompense of disbelievers." [9:25,26]
Hot Pursuit of the Enemy:
After their defeat, some enemy
troops headed for Ta’if, others to Nakhlah and Awtas. A group
of Muslims headed by Abu ‘Amir Al-Ash‘ ari, were despatched
to chase the enemy, some skirmishes took place during which Abu
‘Amir was killed.
A similar battalion of horsemen
pursued the idolaters who threaded the track to Nakhlah and
caught up with Duraid bin As-Simmah, who was killed by Rabi‘a
bin Rafi‘. After collecting the booty, the Messenger of Allâh left for Ta’if to face
the greatest number of the defeated idolaters. The booty was six
thousand captives, twenty four thousand camels; over forty
thousand sheep and four thousand silver ounces. The Messenger of
Allâh gave orders
that booty should be confined at Al-J‘iranah and ordained Mas‘ud
bin ‘Amr Al-Ghifari to be in charge of it. It was only when he
was entirely free from Ta’if Campaign, that one of the captives
As-Shaimâ’, the daughter of Al-Harith As-Sa‘diya, the
Messenger’s foster sister was brought to the Messenger of Allâh
, she introduced
herself to him. Upon recognizing her by a certain mark, he
honoured her, spread for her his garment and seated her on it. He
was graceful and released her and made her turn back to her
Ta’if Campaign is in fact an
extension of Hunain Ghazwah; that is because the majority
of the defeated troops of Hawazin and Thaqif went into Ta’if
with the general commander — Malik bin ‘Awf An-Nasri — and
fortified themselves within it. So upon finishing with Hunain
Invasion, he gathered the booty at Al-Ji‘ranah in the very
month (i.e. Shawwal) and in the eighth year A.H.
A vanguard battalion of a
thousand men led by Khalid bin Al-Waleed marched towards At-Ta’if.
Whereas the Messenger of Allâh proceeded passing
through Nakhlah Al-Yamaniyah, Qarn Al-Manazil and through Laiyah.
At Laiyah there was a castle that belonged to Malik bin ‘Awf,
so the Messenger of Allâh gave orders to have it
destroyed. He resumed his march till he got to Ta’if. There he
dismounted, camped near its castle and laid siege to the castle
inhabitants; but not for long.
How long the siege continued, is
still a matter of disagreement. It however stands between 10-20
A lot of arrow-shooting and rock-hurling
occurred during the siege. For as soon as the Muslims laid siege
round the castle, its people started shooting arrows against them.
The arrows were so intense and fierce that they looked as if they
had been locusts on the move. A number of Muslims were wounded
and twelve were killed.
To be far from the arrow-range,
the Muslims had to ascend to a higher location and camped on —
i.e. to what is now called At-Ta’if Mosque. The Prophet set up a mangonel and
shelled the castle. Eventually a gap was made in the castle wall,
through which a number of Muslims managed to pass into the
castle, sheltered by a wooden tank, with the purpose of setting
fire into it. Anyway, the enemy poured down molten hot iron on
them. Affected by this the Muslims stepped out of the tank and
were again exposed to arrow shooting and consequently some of
them were killed.
To force the enemy to surrender,
the Prophet tended
to a war policy of burning and cutting the enemy’s crops. His
order was to cut their vineyards and burn them. Seeing that the
Muslims started rapidly cutting and burning their vines, they
implored the Prophet
to stop and have mercy on them for the sake of Allâh and out of
kinship motives. So the Prophet agreed. When the caller of the
Messenger of Allâh
called out unto people saying "He whosoever descends and
steps out of the castle is free." Twenty-three men came out.<
One of them was Abu Bakrah who tied himself to a wall and let
himself down by means of a small wheel, that would normally be
used for drawing up water from a well. The way he let himself
down made the Prophet nickname him "Abu Bakrah", i.e.
the man with the wheel. The Messenger of Allâh set them all free and
entrusted each one of them to a Muslim to care about their living
affairs, which was too hard for the castle folkspeople to bear.
Seeing that the siege lasted too
long and that the castle was immune and could stand any siege (for
they had already stored a supply that suffices for over a year)
and that the Muslims were suffering — day by day — from arrow-shots
and heated iron hooks, the Messenger of Allâh consulted Nawfal bin Mu‘âwiyah
Ad-Daili about that. He said: "They are like a fox hiding
inside its burrow. If you stoodfast at it you would catch it, but
if you parted with it, no harm would afflict you." The
Messenger of Allâh
decided to lift the siege and depart. ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, who
was ordered by the Prophet to notify people, said to them "If
Allâh will, we are leaving the castle and going back tomorrow."
As it was too hard for the Muslims to go back and leave the
castle unconquered they complained saying, "Should we go
away while the castle is still unopened?" His reply was:
"Then, start fighting in the morning." In the morning
they fought and were wounded. So when he repeated this statement:
"If Allâh will, we are leaving the castle and going back
tomorrow", they were pleased and carried out the order
submissively and started moving, which made the Messenger of Allâh
As soon as they mounted and
started moving the Messenger said:
"Say! Here we are
returning, repenting, worshipping (Allâh) and to our
Lord we offer praise."
When the Messenger of Allâh was
asked to invoke Allâh against Thaqif, he said:
"O Allâh, guide
Thaqif and bring them to us as Muslims."
The Distribution of the Booty
Upon returning and lifting the
siege in Ta’if, the Messenger of Allâh had stayed over ten
nights at Al-Ji‘ranah before starting to distribute the booty.
Distribution delay was due to the Prophet’s hope that Hawazin’s
delegation might arrive and announce their repentance and
consequently reclaim their loss. Seeing that none of them
arrived, he started dividing the booty so as to calm down the
tribes’ chiefs and the celebrities of Makkah. The first to
receive booty and the ones who obtained the greatest number of
shares were the people who had recently embraced Islam.
Abu Sufyan bin Harb was given a
hundred camels and forty (gold) ounces and yet he said, "What
about my son, Yazeed’s Share?" So he was given the same
quantity for his son as well. But yet he exclaimed: "And
what about the share of Mu‘âwiyah, my second son?" So the
Prophet gave Mu‘âwiyah
as much as he gave his father and brother. Hakeem bin Hizam was
given a hundred camels, but he was given a hundred more when he
demanded. Safwan bin Omaiyah was given three hundred camels - a
hundred camels at each time. It is thus mentioned in Shifâ’<,
Book by Qadi Iyadh. The Prophet gave Al-Harith bin
Harith bin Kilda a hundred camels. He also gave some chiefs of
Quraish and other clans a hundred camels; he gave others fifty
and some others had forty.
Eventually it was spread among
people that "Muhammad grants generously and fears not to
grow poor." This made bedouins gather around him expecting
to be given some wealth. They were so many that they forced the
Prophet to seek
refuge against a tree and they even took away his garment, "O
people!" He said, "Give me back my garment! For I swear
by the One in Whose Hand is Muhammad’s soul, that if I had as
many numerous camels as the number of Tihama trees, I would
distribute them among you. You know quite well that I am neither
mean nor coward or a liar." Standing by his camel he plucked
out a hair of his camel’s hump and held it between his two
fingers, lifted it up and said: "O people, I swear by Allâh
that I get nothing but one-fifth of your booty, and this very
fifth goes back to you."
As soon as he had given the new
converts, the Messenger of Allâh ordered Zaid bin Thabit
to fetch the booty and summon people. Then he ordained shares to
people. A footman’s share was four camels and forty sheep, and
a horseman would take twelve camels and a hundred and twenty
sheep. This distribution of booty was based on a wise policy. In
this world there are lots of people who know the truth only when
it comes through their stomachs and they do not recognize it if
it comes through their brains. The similitude of such people is
as the guidance of an animal to its herd by means of a bunch of
clover held at a constant distance off its mouth. The animal
would try all the time to catch it, so it would eventually go
into the herd safely. In the same way you have to do various
kinds of temptations to make certain kind of people familiarize
Islam and be pleased with.
The Helpers (Al-Ansar)
are furious at the Messenger of Allâh :
At first the Prophet’s policy
of distribution was uncomprehended by many a man. Therefore sharp-tongued
people started expressing their objections. The Helpers were
among those who were afflicted by this policy. They were deprived
of Hunain gifts though they had been the ones who were summoned
at Hunain hard times and they were the first to rush to fight
with the Messenger of Allâh and standfast till the
defeat turned into victory. Now here they are watching those who
escaped fill their hands with booty while they are given nothing.
On the authority of Ibn Ishaq:
"When the Messenger of Allâh had given Quraish and
Arab tribes those gifts and allotted nothing to the Helpers, a
group of the Helpers felt so uneasy about it that a lot of ill-statements
against the Prophet
were spread among them to an extent that one of them said: "By
Allâh, the Messenger of Allâh was ill-spoken of by his
folksmen!" And those ill-statements went on spreading till
Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah met the Messenger of Allâh , who in his turn faced
his people after a while.
Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah said:
"O Messenger of Allâh, this group of the Helpers are
furious at you about the distribution of the booty that you had
won. You have allotted shares to your own kinsmen and forwarded
lots of gifts to the Arab tribes. But this group has obtained
nothing." The Prophet asked Sa‘d exclaiming:
"Sa‘d, what do you think of all that?" Sa‘d replied:
"O Messenger of Allâh. You know that I am nothing but a
member of this group." "Call out on your people and
bring them forth to me into this shed." Said the Prophet .
So Sa‘d went out and summoned
them. When some Emigrants came, he let them in but forbade others.
When they were all gathered together, he informed the Prophet
saying: "This group of the Helpers have just arrived to meet
you in compliance with your orders." As soon as the
them he thanked Allâh and praised Him, then said to them
inquiring, "I have been told that you are angry with me.
Didn’t I come to you when you were astray and Allâh guided
you? You were poor and Allâh gave you wealth. Weren’t you foes
and Allâh made you love one another." "Yes," they
said, "Allâh and His Messenger are better and more gracious."
Then he said: "What prevents you from replying to the
Messenger of Allâh, O tribe of Helpers?" They said, "What
should be the reply, O Messenger of Allâh, while to the Lord and
to his Messenger belong all benevolence and grace."
The Prophet again said:
"But by Allâh, you
might have answered and answered truly, for I would have
testified to its truth myself: ‘You came to us belied
and rejected and we accepted you; you came to us as
helpless and we helped you; a fugitive, and we took you
in; poor and we comforted you’.
You Helpers, do you feel anxious
for the things of this world, wherewith I have sought to
incline these people unto the Faith in which you are
Are you not satisfied, O
group of Helpers that the people go with ewes and camels
while you go along with the Messenger of Allâh () to your
dwellings. By Him in Whose Hand is my life, had there
been no migration, I would have been one of the Helpers.
If the people would go through a valley and passage, and
the Helpers go through another valley and passage, I
would go through the valley and passage of the Helpers.
Allâh! Have mercy on the Helpers, their children and
their children’s children."
The audience wept until tears
rolled down their beards as they said:
"Yes, we are
satisfied, O Prophet of Allâh ( )! with our lot
Then the Prophet left the gathering and
the people also dispersed.
Arrival of the Hawazin
Hawazin’s delegation arrived a
Muslims just after the distribution of spoils. They were fourteen
men headed by Zuhair bin Sard. The Messenger’s foster uncle was
one of them. They asked him to bestow upon them some of the
wealth and spoils. They uttered so touching words that the
Messenger of Allâh
said to them: "You surely see who are with me. The most
desirable speech to me is the most truthful. Which is dearer to
you, your wealth or your women and children?" They replied:
"Nothing whatsoever compares with kinship." Then when I
perform the noon prayer, stand up and say: "We intercede
with the Messenger of Allâh to exhort the believers,
and we intercede with the believers to exhort the Messenger of
Allâh to forego
the captives of our people fallen to their lot." So when the
Messenger of Allâh
performed the noon prayer, they stood up and said what they had
been told to say. The Messenger , then, said: "As
for what belongs to me and to the children of Abdul Muttalib, you
may consider them, from now on, yours. And I will ask my folksmen
to give back theirs." Upon hearing that the Emigrants and
the Helpers said: "What belongs to us is, from now on,
offered to the Messenger of Allâh ." But Al-Aqra‘
bin Habis said, "We will grant none of what belongs to me
and to Bani Tamim,"; so did ‘Uyaina bin Hisn, who said:
"As for me and Bani Fazarah, I say ‘No’." Al-‘Abbas
bin Mirdas also refused and said: "No" for Bani Saleem
and him. His people, however, said otherwise: "Whatever
spoils belong to us we offer to the Messenger of Allâh (.)" "You have
undermined my position." Said Al-‘Abbas bin Mirdas
spontaneously. Then the Messenger of Allâh said: "These people
have come to you as Muslims. For this I have already tarried the
distribution of the booty. Besides, I have granted them a fair
option but they refused to have anything other than their women
and children. Therefore he who has some of theirs and will prefer
willingly to give them back, let them do. But those who favours
to keep what he owns to himself, let them grant them back too,
and he will be given as a recompense six times as much from the
first booty that Allâh may provide us." People then said,
"We will willingly offer them all for the sake of the
Messenger of Allâh." The Messenger of Allâh said: "But in this
way we are not able to find out who is content and who is not. So
go back and we will be waiting for your chiefs to convey to us
your decisions." All of them gave back the women and
children. The only one who refused to comply with the Messenger’s
desire was ‘Uyaina bin Hisn. He refused to let an old woman of
theirs go back at first. Later on he let her go back. The
Messenger of Allâh
gave every captive a garment as a gift.
Lesser Pilgrimage (Al-‘Umrah)
to Makkah and leaving for Madinah:
Having accomplished the
distribution of the spoils at Al-Ji‘ranah he left it while
wearing Al-‘Umrah clothes and proceeded to Makkah to
perform Al-‘Umrah. The Messenger of Allâh turned back from there
to Madinah after appointing ‘Itab bin Usaid on Makkah as
governor. His arrival to Madinah was by the last six nights of
Dhul-Qa‘dah, in the year 8 A.H. On this occasion Muhammad Al-Ghazali
"What a great change it is
between the victorious period of Muhammad at present which Allâh
has towered with a manifest conquest, and that period of the past
during which Muhammad first arrived at this town, eight years ago."
When he first came to Madinah,
he was pursued and wanted. He was seeking a secure shelter. He
was a lonely stranger who sought companionship and comfort. The
people of Madinah welcomed him, gave him residence and aided him
and embraced the light of Islam, which had been sent down upon
him. They, for his sake, did not care about the enmity of other
peoples. Here he is entering Madinah again, after the lapse of
eight years of that first visit. Madinah, the town that had
received him once, when he was a frightened Emigrant; it receives
him once again when Makkah has become in his hands and at his
disposal. It is Makkah that has got rid of its pride and Jahiliyah
(i.e. pre-Islamic period and traditions). It is now proud
again and mighty in Islam. The Messenger of Allâh forgave all
the errors and wrongs of its people.
"Verily, he who fears
Allâh with obedience to Him (by abstaining from sins and
evil deeds, and by performing righteous good deeds), and
is patient, then surely, Allâh makes not the reward of
the good-doers to be lost." [12:90]
After the Conquest
Upon returning from this long
successful travel, the Messenger of Allâh stayed in Madinah where
he received delegates and dispatched agents and appointed
preachers and callers to Islam everywhere. Those whose hearts
were still full of prejudice against Islam and therefore were too
proud to embrace Allâh’s religion, were decisively muffled on
their non-acquiescence in the status quo prevalent then in
Here is a mini-image about the
believed ones. We have already stated that the Messenger’s
arrival in Madinah was by the last days of the eighth year of Al-Hijra.
No sooner the crescent of Muharram of the ninth year turned up
than the Messenger of Allâh dispatched the believed
ones, to the tribes as shown in the list below:
1. ‘Uyaina bin Hisn to
Yazeed bin Husain to Aslam and Ghifar.
3. ‘Abbad bin Bishr Al-Ashhali
to Sulaim and Muzainah.
4. Rafi‘ bin Mukaith
5. ‘Amr bin Al-‘As
to Bani Fazarah.
6. Ad-Dahhak bin Sufyan
to Bani Kilab.
7. Basheer bin Sufyan to
8. Ibn Al-Lutabiyah Al-Azdi
to Bani Dhubyan.
9. Al-Muhajir bin Abi
Omaiyah to Sana‘a’ (Al-Aswad Al-‘Ansi called at him
when he was in it).
10. Ziyad bin Labid to
11. ‘Adi bin Hatim to
Tai’ and Bani Asad.
12. Malik bin Nuwairah
to Bani Hanzalah.
13. Az-Zabraqan bin Badr
to Bani Sa‘d (a portion of them).
14. Qais bin ‘Asim to
Bani Sa‘d (a portion of them).
15. Al-‘Alâ’ bin Al-Hadrami
16. ‘Ali bin Abi Talib
to Najran (to collect Sadaqa & Jizya).
Some of these agents were
despatched in Muharram, 7 A.H., others were sent later until the
tribes they were heading for had completely converted into Islam.
Such a move clearly demonstrates the great success that the
Islamic Da‘wah (Call) enjoyed after Al-Hudaibiyah Treaty.
However, shortly after the conquest of Makkah, people began to
embrace Islam in large hosts.
In the same way that the
believed ones were dispatched to the tribes, we understand that
dispatching some more platoons to all regions of Arabia is a
necessity for the prevalence and domination of security on all
lands of Arabia.
Here is a list of those platoons:
At dawn they raided Mahallat
Hatim, demolished the idol and filled their hands with
spoils, camels and sheep booties, whereas ‘Adi fled to
Ash-Sham. The sister of ‘Adi bin Hatim was one of the
captives. Inside Al-Qullus safe, Muslims found three
swords and three armours. On the way they distributed the
spoils and put aside the best things to the Messenger of
They did not share the Hatims.
- ‘Uyaina bin Hisn Al-Fazari’s
platoon in Al-Muharram, the ninth year of Al-Hijra to
Bani Tamim. It consisted of fifty horsemen, none of them
was an Emigrant or a Helper.
- This expedition was
dispatched due to the fact that Bani Tamim had already
urged other tribes not to pay tribute (Al-Jizya)
and eventually stopped them from paying it.
- Therefore, ‘Uyaina bin
Hisn set out to fight them. All the way long he marched
by night and lurked by day. He went on that way till he
overtook them and attacked them in the desert. They fled
back for their lives. Eleven men, twenty-one women and
thirty boys were captured then. He drove them back to
Madinah and were housed in Ramlah bint Al-Harith’s
residence. Ten of their leaders, who came to the Prophet’s
door, called out unto him saying: "O Muhammad come
out and face us." When he went out they held him and
- He exchanged talk with them
for a while then left them and went to perform the noon-prayer.
After prayer he sat in the mosque-patio. They proclaimed
a desire to show boasting and self-pride. For this
purpose they introduced their orator ‘Utarid bin Hajib
who delivered his speech. The Messenger of Allâh asked Thabit bin
Qais bin Shammas — the Muslim orator — to respond. He
did that. In return, they brought forth their poet Az-Zabraqan
bin Badr who recited some boastful poetry. Hassan bin
Thabit, the poet of Islam, promptly replied back. When
talks and poetry came to an end, Al-Aqra‘ bin Habis
said: "Their orator is more eloquent than ours, and
their poet is more poetically learned than ours. Their
voices and sayings excel ours, as well." Eventually
they announced their embracing Islam. Consequently, the
Messenger of Allâh acknowledged
their Islamization, awarded them well, and rendered them
back their women and children.
- A platoon headed by Qutbah
bin ‘Amir to a spot called Khath‘am in Tabalah, a
plot of land not far from Turbah. That was in Safar, 9 A.H.
Accompanied by twenty men and only ten camels to mount
alternatively on, Qutbah raided them and fought so
fiercely that a great number of both parties were wounded
and some others were killed. The Muslims drove back with
them camels, women and sheep to Madinah.
- The mission of Dahhak bin
Sufyan Al-Kilabi to Bani Kilab in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal in the
year 9 A.H. This mission was sent to Bani Kilab to call
them to embrace Islam. Refusing to embrace Islam, they
started to fight against the Muslims, but were defeated
and sustained one man killed.
- The three hundred men
expedition of ‘Alqamah bin Mujazziz Al-Mudlaji to
Jeddah shores in Rabi‘ Al-Akhir. This expedition was
dispatched to fight against some men from (Al-Habasha)
Abyssinia (Ethiopia), who gathered together near the
shores of Jeddah and exercised acts of piracy against the
Makkans. Therefore he crossed the sea till he got to an
island. But as soon as the pirates had learned of Muslims’
arrival, they fled.
- The task of the platoon of
‘Ali bin Abi Talib was to demolish Al-Qullus, which was
an idol that belonged to Tai’ tribe. That was in Rabi‘
Al-Awwal in the year 9 A.H. ‘Ali was dispatched by the
Messenger of Allâh with one hundred
fifty men. A hundred of them were on camels. The other
fifty were on horseback. He held a black flag and a white
Upon arrival in Madinah, the sister of ‘Adi
bin Hatim begged the Messenger of Allâh to have mercy on
her and said: "O Messenger of Allâh, my brother is
absent and father is dead, and I am too old to render any
service. Be beneficent to me so that Allâh may be
bountiful to you." He said: "Who is your
brother?" She said: "It is ‘Adi bin Hatim."
"Is he not the one who fled from Allâh and his
Messenger?" Said the Prophet then went away
from her. Next day she reiterated the same thing as the
day before and received the same answer. A day later she
uttered similar words, this time he made benefaction to
her. The man who was beside the Prophet, and whom she
thought to be ‘Ali, said to her: "Ask for an
animal from him to ride on." And she was granted her
She returned to Ash-Sham
where she met her brother and said to him: "The
Messenger of Allâh has done me such
noble deed that your father would never have done it.
Therefore, willy-nilly, frightened or secure, you should
go and see him." Unsecure neither protected by some
one, not even recommended by a letter as a means of
protection, ‘Adi came and met the Prophet. The
Messenger of Allâh took him home
with him. As soon as he sat before him, the Messenger of
thanked Allâh and praised him, then said: "What
makes you flee? Do you flee lest you should say there is
no god but Allâh? Do you know any other god but Allâh?"
"No" he said, then talked for a while. The
Messenger of Allâh went on saying: "Certainly you
flee so that you may not hear the statement saying ‘Allâh
is the Greatest.’ Do you know anyone who is greater
than Allâh?" "No" he said. "The Jews
are those whose portion is wrath, and the Christians are
those who have gone astray," the Prophet retorted.
"I am a Muslim and I believe in one God (Allâh)."
‘Adi finally proclaimed with a joyous face. The Prophet
ordered him a residence with one of the Helpers. From
that time he started calling at the Prophet in the mornings
and in the evenings.
On the authority of Ibn
Ishaq, when the Prophet made him sit
down in front of him in his house, the Prophet said,
"O ‘Adi, were you not cast in disbelief?"
"Yes". ‘Adi said. "Did you not share one
quarter of your people’s gains?" "Yes".
Said ‘Adi. The Messenger of Allâh said: "It
is sinful in your religion to do such a thing, and you
should not allow yourself to do it." "Yes, by
Allâh, that is true", said ‘Adi. "Thus I
worked out that he was a Prophet inspired by Allâh, and
sent to people. He knows what is unknown."
In another version, the
said: "‘Adi, embrace Islam and you shall be secure."
"But I am a man of religion." Said ‘Adi.
"I know your religion better than you." Said
the Prophet. "Do you know my religion better than
me?" ‘Adi asked. The Prophet replied, "Yes".
He said: "Are you not cast in disbelief because you
appropriate to yourself the fourth of your people’s
gains?" "Yes". Said ‘Adi. "It is
unlawful in your religion to do such a thing." The
Prophet said, and ‘‘Adi added: "He did not need
to say it again for I immediately acquiesced it."
Al-Bukhari narrates that
‘Adi said: While we were with the Prophet , a man came in
and complained to him about poverty. Then another man
came in and complained about highway robbery. The
Messenger of Allâh then said:
"O ‘Adi, have you ever been to Al-Hirah? If you
were doomed to live long life, you would be able to see a
riding camel woman travel from Hirah till it
circumambulates Al-Ka‘bah fearing none but Allâh; and
if you were to live long enough you would open the
treasures of Kisra. And if you were to live long you
would be able to see man offering a handful of gold or
silver to others but none accepts to take it." At
the end of this Hadith ‘Adi later on says:
"I have seen a riding camel woman travel from Al-Hirah
till it circumambulates the Ka‘bah fearing none but Allâh,
I have also been one of those who opened the treasures of
Kisra bin Hurmuz. If you were to live long life you would
witness what the Prophet, Abul Qasim, had already said
about ‘offering a handful of …’ i.e. the Prophet’s
prophecies did really come true."
in Rajab, in the Year 9 A.H.
The invasion and the conquest of
Makkah was considered a decisive one between the truth and the
error. As a result of which, the Arabs had no more doubt in
Muhammad’s mission. Thus we see that things went contrary to
the pagans’ expectations. People started to embrace Islam, the
religion of Allâh, in great numbers. This is manifested clearly
in the chapter — The delegations, of this book. It can also be
deduced out of the enormous number of people who shared in the Hajjatul-Wadâ‘
(Farewell Pilgrimage). All domestic troubles came to an end.
Muslims, eventually felt at ease and started setting up the
teachings of Allâh’s Laws and intensifying the Call to Islam.
The underlying Reasons:
The Byzantine power, which was
considered the greatest military force on earth at that time,
showed an unjustifiable opposition towards Muslims. As we have
already mentioned, their opposition started at killing the
ambassador of the Messenger of Allâh , Al-Harith bin ‘Umair
Al-Azdi, by Sharhabeel bin ‘Amr Al-Ghassani. The ambassador was
then carrying a message from the Prophet to the ruler of Busra.
We have also stated that the Prophet consequently dispatched a
brigade under the command of Zaid bin Haritha, who had a fierce
fight against the Byzantines at Mu’tah. Although Muslim forces
could not have revenge on those haughty overproud tyrants, the
confrontation itself had a great impression on the Arabs, all
Caesar — who could neither
ignore the great benefit that Mu’tah Battle had brought to
Muslims, nor could he disregard the Arab tribes’ expectations
of independence, and their hopes of getting free from his
influence and reign, nor he could ignore their alliance to the
Muslims — realizing all that, Caesar was aware of the
progressive danger threatening his borders, especially Ash-Sham-fronts
which were neighbouring Arab lands. So he concluded that
demolition of the Muslims power had grown an urgent necessity.
This decision of his should, in his opinion, be achieved before
the Muslims become too powerful to conquer, and raise troubles
and unrest in the adjacent Arab territories.
To meet these exigencies, Caesar
mustered a huge army of the Byzantines and pro-Roman Ghassanide
tribes to launch a decisive bloody battle against the Muslims.
General News about the
Byzantines and Ghassanide Preparations for War.
No sooner news about the
Byzantine’s preparations for a decisive invasion against
Muslims reached Madinah than fear spread among them. They started
to envisage the Byzantine invasion in the least sound they could
hear. This could be clearly worked out of what had happened to
‘Umar bin Al-Khattab one day.
The Prophet had taken an oath to
stay off his wives for a month in the ninth year of Al-Hijra.
Therefore, he deserted them and kept off in a private place. At
the beginning, the Companions of the Messenger of Allâh were
puzzled and could not work out the reason for such behaviour.
They thought the Prophet had divorced them and
that was why he was grieved, disturbed and upset. In ‘Umar’s
version of the very story he says: "I used to have a Helper
friend who often informed me about what happened if I weren’t
present, and in return I always informed him of what had taken
place during his absence. They both lived in the high part of
Madinah. Both of them used to call at the Prophet alternatively
during that time of suspense. Then one day I heard my friend,
knock at the door saying: "Open up! Open up!" I asked
wondering, "What’s the matter? Has the Ghassanide come?"
"No it is more serious than that. The Messenger of Allâh has deserted his wives."<
In another version, ‘Umar
said, "We talked about Ghassanide preparations to invade us.
When it was his turn to convey the news to me, he went down and
returned in the evening. He knocked at the door violently and
said ‘Is he sleeping?’ I was terrified but I went out to meet
him. ‘Something serious had taken place.’ He said. ‘Has the
Ghassaindes arrived?’ Said I. ‘No,’ he said, ‘it is
greater and more serious. The Messenger of Allâh has divorced his wives.’"
This state of too much alertness
manifests clearly the seriousness of the situation that Muslims
began to experience. The seriousness of the situation was
confirmed to a large degree by the hypocrites behaviour, when
news about the Byzantines’ preparations reached Madinah. The
fact that the Messenger of Allâh won all the battles he
fought, and that no power on earth could make him terrified, and
that he had always proved to be able to overcome all the
obstacles that stood in his way - did not prevent the hypocrites,
who concealed evil in their hearts, from expecting an affliction
to fall upon the Muslims and Islam.
They used to harbour evil and
ill-intentions against the whole process of Islam and the Muslims.
On grounds of illusory hopes of destroying this great religious
edifice, they erected a hotbed of conspiracy and intrigue in the
form of a mosque — Masjid-e-Darar (the mosque of harm).
They approached the Prophet with the request that he
should come and consecrate the place by praying in it himself. As
he was at the moment about to start for Tabuk, he deferred
compliance with their request till his return. Meanwhile he came
to know through Divine Revelation that it was not a Mosque for
devotion and prayer but a meeting place for the anti-Islamic
elements. On his return, therefore, the Prophet sent a party to demolish
the new structure.
Particular News about the
Ghassanide Preparations for War:
A magnified image of the
prominent danger threatening the Muslims life was carried to them
by the Nabateans who brought oil from Ash-Sham to Madinah. They
carried news about Heraclius’ preparations and equipment of an
enormous army counting over forty thousand fighters besides
Lukham, Judham and other tribes allied to the Byzantines. They
said that its vanguard had already reached Al-Balqâ’. Thus was
the grave situation standing in ambush for the Muslims. The
general situation was aggravated seriously by other adverse
factors of too much hot weather, drought and the rough and rugged
distance they had to cover in case they decided to encounter the
The Messenger of Allâh’s concept and estimation
of the situation and its development was more precise and
accurate than all others. He thought that if he tarried or dealt
passively with the situation in such a way that might enable the
Byzantines to paddle through the Islamic controlled provinces or
to go as far as Madinah, this would — amid these circumstances
— leave the most awful impression on Islam as well as on the
Muslims’ military credibility.
The pre-Islamic beliefs and
traditions (Al-Jahiliyah) which were at that time dying
because of the strong decisive blow that they had already had at
Hunain, could have had a way to come back to life once again in
such an environment. The hypocrites who were conspiring against
the Muslims so that they might stab them in the back whereas
Byzantines would attack them from the front. If such a thing came
to light and they succeeded in their evil attempts, the Prophet
and his Companions’ efforts to spread Islam would collapse and
their profits which were the consequences of successive and
constant fights and invasions would be invalidated. The Messenger
of Allâh realised
all that very well. So — in spite of the hardships and drought
that Muslims were suffering from — the Prophet was determined that the
Muslims should invade the Byzantines and fight a decisive battle
at their own borders. He was determined not to tarry at all in
order to thwart any Roman attempt to approach the land of Islam.
When the Messenger of Allâh had made up his mind and
took his final decision, he ordered his Companions to get ready
for war and sent for the Makkans and the other Arab tribes asking
for their assistance.
Contrary to his habit of
concealing his real intention of the invasion by means of
declaring a false one, he announced openly his intention of
meeting the Byzantines and fighting them. He cleared the
situation to his people so that they would get ready, and urged
them to fight in the way of Allâh. On this occasion a part of Surat
Bara’a (Chapter 9 — The Repentance) was sent down by Allâh,
urging them to steadfastness and stamina.
On the other hand, the Messenger
of Allâh cherished
them to pay charities and to spend the best of their fortunes in
the way of Allâh.
No sooner had the Muslims heard
the voice of the Messenger of Allâh calling them to fight
the Byzantines than they rushed to comply with his orders. With
great speed they started getting ready for war. Tribes and
phratries from here and there began pouring in Madinah. Almost
all the Muslims responded positively. Only those who had weakness
at their hearts favoured to stay behind. They were only three
people. Even the needy and the poor who could not afford a ride
came to the Messenger of Allâh asking for one so that
they would be able to share in the fight against the Byzantines.
But when he said:
"...‘I can find no
mounts for you’ they turned back while their eyes
overflowing with tears of grief that they could not find
anything to spend (for Jihad)." [9:92]
The Muslims raced to spend out
money and to pay charities to provide this invasion. ‘Uthman,
for instance, who had already rigged two hundred, saddled camels
to travel to Ash-Sham, presented them all with two hundred ounces
(of gold) as charity. He also fetched a thousand dinars and cast
them all into the lap of the Messenger of Allâh , who turned them over
and said: "From this day on nothing will harm ‘Uthman
regardless of what he does." Again and
again ‘Uthman gave till his charity toped to nine hundred
camels and a hundred horses, besides the money he paid.
Abdur Rahman bin ‘Awf, on his
side, paid two hundred silver ounces, whereas Abu Bakr paid the
whole money he had and left nothing but Allâh and His Messenger
as a fortune for his family. ‘Umar paid half his fortune. Al-‘Abbas
gifted a lot of money. Talhah, Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah and Muhammad
bin Maslamah, gave money for the welfare of the invasion. ‘Asim
bin ‘Adi, on his turn, offered ninety camel-burdens of dates.
People raced to pay little and much charities alike. One of them
gave the only half bushel (or the only bushel) he owned. Women
shared in this competition by giving the things they owned; such
as musk, armlets, anklets, ear-rings and rings. No one abstained
from spending out money, or was too mean to grant money or
anything except the hypocrites:
"Those who defame such
of the believers who give charity (in Allâh’s cause)
voluntarily, and those who could not find to give charity
(in Allâh’s cause) except what is available to them,
so they mock at them (believers)." [9:79]
The Muslim Army is leaving
Upon accomplishing the equipment
of the army, the Messenger of Allâh ordained that Muhammad
bin Maslamah Al-Ansari should be appointed over Madinah — in
another version Siba‘ bin ‘Arftah. To ‘Ali bin Abu Talib he
entrusted his family’s safety and affairs and ordered him to
stay with them. This move made the hypocrites undervalue ‘Ali,
so he followed the Messenger of Allâh and caught up with him.
But the Prophet made ‘Ali turn back to Madinah after saying:
"Would it not suffice you to be my successor in the way that
Aaron (Harun) was to Moses’?" Then he proceeded saying:
"But no Prophet succeeds me."
On Thursday, the Messenger of
northwards to Tabuk. The army that numbered thirty thousand
fighters was a great one, when compared with the previous armies
of Islam. Muslims had never marched with such a great number
Despite all the gifts of wealth
and mounts the army was not perfectly equipped. The shortage of
provisions and mounts was so serious that eighteen men mounted
one camel alternatively. As for provisions, members of the army
at times had to eat the leaves of trees till their lips got
swollen. Some others had to slaughter camels — though they were
so dear — so that they could drink the water of their stomach;
that is why that army was called "The army of distress".
On their way to Tabuk, the army
of Islam passed by Al-Hijr — which was the native land of
Thamud who cut out (huge) rocks in the valley; that is "Al-Qura
Valley" of today. They watered from its well but later the
Messenger of Allâh
told them not to drink of that water, nor perform the ablution
with it. The dough they made, he asked them to feed their camels
with. He forbade them to eat anything whatsoever of it. As an
alternative he told them to water from that well which Prophet
Salih’s she-camel used to water from.
On the authority of Ibn ‘Umar:
"Upon passing by Al-Hijr the Prophet said:
"Do not enter the
houses of those who erred themselves lest what had
happened to them would afflict you, but if you had to do
such a thing let it be associated with weeping."
Then he raised his head up and
accelerated his strides till he passed the valley out."<
Shortage of water and the army’s
need to it made them complain to the Messenger of Allâh about that. So he
supplicated Allâh, who sent a rainful cloud. It rained and so
all people drank and supplied themselves with their need of water.
When they drew near Tabuk, the
Prophet said: "If Allâh will, tomorrow you will arrive at
Tabuk spring. You will not get there before daytime. So whoever
reaches it should not touch its water; but wait till I come."
Mu‘adh said: "When we reached the spring it used to gush
forth some water. We found that two men had already preceded us
to it. The Messenger of Allâh asked them: ‘Have you
touched its water?’ They replied: ‘Yes’. He said what Allâh
inspired him to say, then he scooped up little water of that
spring, thin stream which gathered together, he washed his face
and hand with it and poured it back into it; consequently plenty
of water spouted out of it so people watered. ‘Mu‘adh’,
said the Messenger of Allâh, ‘if you were doomed to live long
life you will see in here fields full of vegetation.’"<
On the way to Tabuk, or as soon
as they reached Tabuk, the Messenger of Allâh said: ‘Severe wind
will blow tonight, so none of you should stand up. Whoever has a
camel should tie it up.’ Later on when the strong wind blew,
one of the men stood up and the wind carried him away to Tai’
All the way long the Messenger
of Allâh was
intent on the performance of the combined prayer of noon and the
afternoon; and so did he with sunset and evening prayers. His
prayers for both were either pre-time or post-time prayers.
The Army of Islam at Tabuk:
Arriving at Tabuk and camping
there, the Muslim army was ready to face the enemy. There, the
Messenger of Allâh
delivered an eloquent speech that included the most inclusive
words. In that speech he urged the Muslims to seek the welfare of
this world and the world to come. He warned and cherished them
and gave them good tidings. By doing that he cherished those who
were broken in spirits, and blocked up the gap of shortage and
mess they were suffering from due to lack of supplies, food and
Upon learning of the Muslims’
march, the Byzantines and their allies were so terrified that
none of them dared set out to fight. On the contrary they
scattered inside their territory. It brought, in itself, a good
credit to the Muslim forces. That had gained military reputation
in the mid and remote lands of Arabian Peninsula. The great and
serious political profits that the Muslim forces had obtained,
were far better than the ones they could have acquired if the two
armies had been engaged in military confrontation.
The Head of Ailah, Yahna bin
Rawbah came to the Messenger of Allâh , made peace with him and
paid him the tribute (Al-Jizya). Both of Jarba’ and
Adhruh peoples paid him tribute, as well. So the Messenger of Allâh
gave each a
guarantee letter, similar to Yahna’s, in which he says:
"In the Name of Allâh,
the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
This is a guarantee of protection
from Allâh and Muhammad the Prophet, the Messenger of
Allâh, to Yahna bin Rawbah and the people of Ailah;
their ships, their caravans on land and sea shall have
the custody of Allâh and the Prophet Muhammad, he and
whosoever are with him of Ash-Sham people and those of
the sea. Whosoever contravenes this treaty, his wealth
shall not save him; it shall be the fair prize of him
that takes it. Now it should not be lawful to hinder the
men from any springs which they have been in the habit of
frequenting, nor from any journeys they desire to make,
whether by sea or by land."
The Messenger of Allâh dispatched Khalid bin Al-Waleed
at the head of four hundred and fifty horsemen to ‘Ukaidir
Dumat Al-Jandal and said to him: "You will see him hunting
oryxes." So when Khalid drew near his castle and was as far
as an eye-sight range, he saw the oryxes coming out rubbing their
horns against the castle gate. As it was a moony night Khalid
could see Ukaidir come out to hunt them, so he captured him —
though he was surrounded by his men — and brought him back to
the Messenger of Allâh , who spared his life and
made peace with him for the payment of two thousand camels, eight
hundred heads of cattle, four hundred armours and four hundred
lances. He obliged him to recognize the duty of paying tribute
and charged him with collecting it from Dumat, Tabuk, Ailah and
The tribes, who used to ally the
Byzantines, became quite certain that their dependence oinn their
former masters came to an end. Therefore they turned into being
pro-Muslims. The Islamic state had therefore enlarged its borders
to an extent that it, touched the Byzantines’ and their agents’
borders. So we see that the Byzantine agents role was over.
Returning to Madinah:
The Muslim army returned from
Tabuk victoriously, undeceived or wronged. That was because Allâh
had sufficed them the evils of fight.
On the way back and at a
mountain road, twelve hypocrites sought the Prophet’s life and
that was while he was passing along that mountain road with only
Ammar holding the rein of his she-camel and Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman
driving it, at the time that people had already gone down into
the bottom of the valley.
The hypocrites seized that
opportunity to seek the Prophet’s life. As the Messenger of Allâh
and his two
companions were moving along, they heard thrusts of people coming
towards him from behind with their faces veiled. Hudhaifa, who
was sent by the Prophet to see what was going on, saw them and
stroke their mounts’ faces with a crook in his hand and Allâh
cast fear into their hearts. They fled away and overtook their
However, Hudhaifa named them to
the Messenger of Allâh and informed him of
their intentions. So that was why Hudhaifa was called the "confidant"
of the Messenger of Allâh . About this event Allâh,
the Exalted says:
"And they resolved
that (plot to murder Prophet Muhammad ) which they were
unable to carry out." [9:74]
When his headquarters, Madinah,
began to loom at the horizon, the Prophet said: "This is a
cheerful sight. This is Uhud, which is a mountain, we like it and
it likes us." When the Madinese learnt of their arrival they
set out to meet the army. Women, youths, youngsters and small
children went out of town to celebrate their home-return
"The full moon shone
down upon us, through the traits of Al-Wada‘ Mountain.
Thanks is due to us, as long as a
supplicator invokes to Allâh.."
The Messenger of Allâh ’s march to Tabuk was
in Rajab and his return in Ramadan. So we see that this Ghazwah
took fifty days, twenty days of which were spent in Tabuk and the
others on the way to and fro. Tabuk Invasion was the last one
made by the Prophet .
The People Who lagged Behind:
Due to its particular
circumstances, this invasion was a peculiar severe trial provided
by Allâh only to try the believers’Faith and sort them out of
others. This is Allâh’s permanent Will in such circumstances.
In this respect He says:
"Allâh will not leave
the believers in the state in which you are now, until He
distinguishes the wicked from the good." [3:179]
Lagging and hanging back from
full participation in that invasion amounted to the degree of
hypocrisy. Whenever the Messenger of Allâh was informed of a man’s
lingering, he would say: "Leave him alone! If Allâh knows
him to be good He will enable him to follow you; but if he were
not so, Allâh would relieve us of him."
Nobody stayed behind except
those who were either hindered by a serious excuse or the
hypocrites who told lies to Allâh and His Messenger.
Some of those hypocrites’
lingering was due to an excuse based on forgery and delusion.
Some others tarried but didn’t ask for an instant permission.
But there were three believers who unjustifiably lingered. They
were the ones whom Allâh tried their Faith, but later on He
turned to them in mercy and accepted their repentance.
As soon as the Messenger of Allâh
Madinah, he prayed two Rak‘a then he sat to receive his
people. The hypocrites who were over eighty men<
came and offered various kinds of excuses and started swearing.
The Prophet acknowledged their excuses and invoked Allâh’s
forgiveness for them but he entrusted their inner thoughts and
Faith to Allâh.
As for the three faithful
believers — Ka‘b bin Malik, Murara bin Ar-Rabi‘, and Hilal
bin Omaiyah — who favoured telling the truth, the Messenger of
Allâh bade his
Companions not to talk to them.
Consequently they were subject
to a severe boycott and were excluded from the life of the
community. Everybody turned them their back. So they felt as if
the whole land had become constrained to them in spite of its
spaciousness and they felt awkward and uneasy. The hard times
they lived and which lasted for over forty days were towered by
an order to them to forsake their wives. After fifty days’
boycott Allâh turned to them and revealed that in Qur’ân:
"And (He did forgive
also) the three (whom the Prophet ) left (i.e. he
did not give his judgement in their case, and their case
was suspended for Allâh’s Decision) till for them the
earth, vast as it is, was straitened and their ownselves
were straitened to them, and they perceived that there is
no fleeing from Allâh, and no refuge but with Him. Then,
He accepted their repentance, that they might repent (unto
Him). Verily, Allâh is the One Who accepts repentance,
Most Merciful." [9:118]
Allâh’s turning to them was a
great joy for both Muslims and the three concerned. The joy of
the stayers behind was unaccountable in aim and degree. It was
the happiest day in their lives. The good tiding cherished them
and filled their hearts with delight. As for those who lingered
due to disability or sickness or any other serious excuse, Allâh,
the Exalted said about them:
"There is no blame on
those who are weak or ill or who find no resources to
spend [in holy warfare (Jihad)], if they are
sincere (in duty) to Allâh and His Messenger." [9:91]
When he approached Madinah, the
Messenger of Allâh
"Inside Madinah, there
are certain men, who though being left back due to
serious excuses, they have, all the time, been with you.
Lingerers as they are, they have been while you were
passing valleys or walking along roads." "Do
you mean that they have done that while they are still in
Madinah?" They wondered. "Yes though they are
in Madinah." The Prophet said.
The Invasion of Tabuk and its
The effect of this invasion is
great as regards extending and confirming the Muslims’
influence and domination on the Arabian Peninsula. It was quite
obvious to everybody that no power but Islam’s would live long
among the Arabs. The remainders of Jahiliyin and
hypocrites — who used to conspire steadily against the Muslims
and who perpetually relied on Byzantine power when they were in
need of support or help — these people lost their expectations
and desires of ever reclaiming their ex-influence. Realizing that
there was no way out and that they were to submit to the fait
accompli, they gave up their attempts.
From that time on, hypocrites
were no longer treated leniently or even gently by the Muslims.
Allâh not only bade Muslims to treat them severely but He also
forbade them to take their gift charities or perform prayer on
their dead, or ask Allâh’s forgiveness for them or even visit
their tombs. Allâh bade the Muslims to demolish the mosque,
which they verily appointed and used as a hiding place where they
might practise their plots, conspiracy and deceit. Some Qur’ânic
verses were sent down disclosing them publicly and utterly so
that everybody in Madinah got to know their reality.
The great impact that this
invasion produced could be perceived in of the great number of
delegations who came successively to meet the Messenger of Allâh
deputations used to come to meet him at the end of an invasion
particularly after Makkah Conquest but they
were not as many as these nor were they as frequent as they were
then in the wake of Tabuk event. It was certainly the greatest.
The Qur’ânic Verses
Relating to this Invasion:
Many a verse of Bara’a
(Tauba) Chapter handling the event of Tabuk were
revealed. Some verses were revealed before the march, while
others after setting out for Tabuk, i.e. in the context of the
battle. Some other verses were also revealed on the Prophet’s
arrival in Madinah. All of which covered the incidents that
featured this invasion: the immanent circumstances of the battle,
exposure of the hypocrites, the prerogatives and special rank
earmarked for the strivers in the cause of Allâh, acceptance of
the repentance of the truthful believers who slackened and those
who hung back, etc.
Some Important Events that
featured that Year:
During this year many events of
great significance took place. They were:
- After the Messenger’s
return from Tabuk, the sworn allegation of infidelity between ‘Uwaimir Al-‘Ajlani and his
wife took place.
- Pelting with stones the
Ghamidiyah woman who confessed committing adultery. She
was pelted with stones only after weaning her child off
her breast milk.
- Negus Ashama; the king of
Abyssinia (Ethiopia), died so the Prophet performed prayer
in absentia for him.
- The death of Umm Kulthum,
the daughter of the Prophet , the Prophet
felt extremely sad at her death. "Had I got a third
daughter, I would let you marry her." He said to ‘Uthman.
- The death of ‘Abdullah
bin Abi Salool, the head of hypocrites, after the Prophet’s
return from Tabuk. The Messenger of Allâh asked Allâh’s
forgiveness for him. He also prayed for him in spite of
‘Umar’s disapproval and his attempt to prevent him
from doing that. Later on a Qur’ânic verse was
revealed attesting to ‘Umar’s right viewpoint.
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