AR-RaheeQ Al-Makhtum (THE
SEALED NECTAR)- Memoirs of the Noble Prophet
Author: Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri - Jamia Salafia - India-
Translated by : Issam Diab
Pages : 1. 2. 3.4.5 .6 .7 .8 .9.10 .11 .12 .13 .14 .15.16 .17
The Battle of
The defeat at Badr was an
ignominy which the Quraishites pride could not leave unavenged.
Revenge was, therefore, the catchword all over Makkah. The
Makkans even forbade lamenting over their murdered people, or
ransoming their captives at Badr Battle lest the Muslims should
realize the grave degree of sadness and feeling of tragedy they
In the wake of Badr event,
Quraish was in common consent and started fresh preparations to
launch an overall war against the Muslims in order to restore
their blemished prestige and wounded pride. The most enthusiastic
polytheists desiring to go into a new battle were ‘Ikrimah bin
Abi Jahl, Safwan bin Omaiyah, Abu Sufyan bin Harb, and ‘Abdullah
bin Abi Rabi‘a. They were determined to crush the commonwealth
of Islam once and for all. Emissaries were sent to all the tribes
to make common cause against the rising Faith. As a consequence
of this, they managed to enlist the support of two well-known
tribes Kinana and Tihamah besides some desert bedouins Ahabish.
It was also decided that the profits of the escaped caravan
headed by Abu Sufyan, which amounted to 1000 camels and 50
thousand Dinars, should be devoted for providing equipment to the
army. The Noble Qur’ân has alluded to this decision of theirs
in the following words:
"Verily, those who
disbelieve spend their wealth to hinder (men) from the
path of Allâh, and so will they continue to spend it;
but in the end it will become an anguish for them. Then
they will be overcomed." [8:36]
They also devised other ways of
recruitment including hiring poets to entice the tribes into
fighting the Muslims. Safwan bin Omaiyah allured Abu ‘Azza, the
poet to work in this context in return for riches after the war
or supporting his daughters if killed. Incidentally, this poet
was prisoner of war (in the context of the Badr events) in the
hands of the Muslims and the Prophet was gracious enough to
release him unransomed provided he would not engage in fight
Abu Sufyan nursed the most
grudge against Muslims because he had lost most of his supplies
in As-Sawiq invasion, let alone the heavy economic losses that
Quraish had sustained in the aftermath of the events that
featured the platoon of Zaid bin Harithah.
In the light of these successive
failures, Quraish precipitated and accelerated their preparations
for a decisive battle with the Muslims. At the turn of the year
everything was ready for the move. The Makkans also decided to
take their women along with them for they might arouse them to
fight manfully. Thus a contingent of three thousand pitched
warriors, of whom seven hundred were mailed soldiers and two
hundred well-mounted cavalry with three thousand camels and
fifteen women marched towards Madinah. The general leader was Abu
Sufyan bin Harb, the cavalry under the leadership of Khalid bin
Al-Waleed assisted by ‘Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, and Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar
were entrusted with the flag.
Old deep-seated feelings of
hatred, with heart-based grudge enveloped the whole process
foreshadowing bitter, bloody revenge-instigated fighting between
the two parties.
Meanwhile Al-‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul
Muttalib, was closely watching the military movements and
preparations for war, and these were all included in an urgent
message sent by him to Prophet who received it while he
was in Qubâ’ Mosque. Ubai bin Ka‘b read the letter to the
Prophet , who asked
him to be reticent with respect to its serious contents. He
hurried back to Madinah, convened a meeting with the Helpers and
Emigrants and conducted with them serious consultations as
regards the measures to be taken.
The whole of Madinah was put on
the alert and all men were heavily armed even during prayer in
anticipation of any emergency. A group of Helpers volunteered to
guard the Prophet
and kept watchful eye all night at his door, amongst whom there
were Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh, Usaid bin Hudair and Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah.
Lest they should be taken by surprise, armed groups of the
Madinese began to police the entrances and roads leading to the
city. To reconnoitre the movements of the polytheists, Muslim
platoons began to patrol the routes for any probable enemy raids.
The Makkan army, on the other
hand, continued the march along the usual western road. On
reaching Al-Abwâ’, Hind bint ‘Utbah, Abu Sufyan’s wife,
suggested that they dig up the grave of the Prophet ’s mother, but the
leaders of the army refused to do so for fear of the consequent
results. The army then followed Wadi Al-‘Aqeeq and turned right
to encamp themselves at a place called ‘Ainain near Uhud
Mountain. That was on Friday, 6th Shawwal, 3 A.H.
A Consultation Assembly for a
The scouting party of Madinah
conveyed the news of the Makkan army step by step. Then the
Messenger of Allâh
held a head military consultation assembly to exchange views
about the situation. He told them about a dream he had. He said:
"By Allâh, I have dreamt of — I implore Allâh to be a
dream of bounty — cows slaughtered and that there was a groove
at the pointed top of my sword, and that I had inserted my hand
into an immune armour."
The interpretation of ‘the
cows’ was that some of his men were killed, and ‘the groove
at the pointed top of his sword’ was that a member of his House
would be hurt. As for ‘the armour’ it was Madinah. Then he
offered a suggestion that his Companions should not go out of
Madinah and that they should encamp themselves within the city.
He was of the opinion that the enemies should be left in the open
to exhaust themselves and thus the Muslims would not risk a
battle. But if they thought of attacking Madinah, Muslim men
would be ready to fight them at the mouths of lanes; whereas
Muslim-women would help from over the house roofs." ‘Abdullah
bin Ubai bin Salul — the head of the hypocrites; who attended
the meeting as a chief of Al-Khazraj — supported the Prophet ’s plan.
As a matter of fact his
agreement was not based on the righteousness of the plan but
rather on personal benefit. He did not want to fight. On the
contrary he secretly aimed at being far away from fight. However
it was Allâh’s Will that he should be disclosed and disgraced
in public — for the first time. It was His Will that the
curtain which concealed their disbelief behind should be
uncovered and pulled down. Allâh’s Will enabled the Muslims to
recognize the reality of those snakes that were creeping within
their garments and inside the sleeves of their clothes. Thanks to
Allâh they recognized them in one of the most critical times of
Some of the best honourable
Companions, who had missed Al-Jihâd in Badr invasion, suggested
that the Prophet
should go out of Madinah and urged him to accept their point of
view. One of them said: "O, Messenger of Allâh , for long time we have
been looking forward to this day; and we have implored Allâh to
make such a day draw near. Thanks to Allâh it is time to fight.
So let us go out and fight our enemies lest they should think
that we have lost heart and do not dare to fight them."
Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib the paternal uncle of the Prophet , who had already covered
the ornaments of his sword with idolaters’ blood in Badr
Battle, was ahead of those enthusiastics who urged him to go out
and meet the disbelievers. He said to the Prophet : "By Allâh, Who
has sent the Book down unto you, I will not taste food till I
fight them with my sword outside Madinah."
After weighing carefull the pros
and cons of the issue, it was decided that the enemy should be
resisted outside the city at Uhud.
Dividing the Islamic Army
into Phalanxes and Departure to the Battle-field:
Ascending the pulpit at the
Friday congregational prayer, the Prophet urged the people in his
sermon to fight courageously. "If you remain steadfast,"
he said "you will be helped by the Power of the All- Mighty."
Then he commanded his men to make ready for the battle. Most of
them rejoiced greatly.
He led the afternoon prayer with
crowds of people. Then he entered his house accompanied by his
two friends Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. They helped him dress and wear
his headcloth. He armed himself and wore two armours one over the
other. He wore his sword and went out to meet people.
People were waiting for him
impatiently. Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh and Usaid bin Hudair blamed
people for pressing on the Prophet . They said: "You
have forced the Messenger of Allâh to fight the enemy
outside Madinah." Therefore they were determined to leave
the whole matter to the Prophet , and blamed themselves
for what they had already done. When the Prophet came out, they said:
"O Messenger of Allâh, we should have not disagreed with
you. So, you are free to do what you desire. If you prefer to
stay inside Madinah we will stay with you. Upon this the
Messenger of Allâh
remarked: "It does not become a Prophet that once he had put
on armour, he should take it off, until Allâh has decided
between him and the enemy."
The Prophet divided his army into
- Al-Muhajireen battalion,
under the command of Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair Al-‘Abdari.
- Al-Ansari-Aws battalion was
commanded by Usaid bin Hudair.
- Al-Ansari-Khazraj battalion
with Al-Hubab bin Al-Mundhir to lead it.
The army consisted of a thousand
fighters; a hundred of them armoured; another fifty horsemen.<
He appointed Ibn Umm Maktum to lead the people in prayer in
Madinah. Departure was announced and the army moved northwards
with the two Sa‘ds, who were armoured, running in front of the
Upon passing along Al-Wada‘
mountain trail he saw a well-armed battalion, which were detached
from the main body of the army. The Prophet inquired who they were
and he was told that they were Jews and were allies of Al-Khazraj.
They told him that they wanted to contribute to the fight against
the idolaters. "Have they embraced Islam?" The Prophet asked. "No,"
they said. So he refused admitting them and said that he would
not seek the assistance of disbelievers against the idolaters.
Parading the Army:
As soon as he reached a location
called Ash-Shaikhan, he paraded his army. He dismissed those whom
he considered to be disabled or too young to stand the fight.
Among them were ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab. Usama bin
Zaid; Usaid bin Zaheer, Zaid bin Thabit, Zaid bin Arqam. ‘Araba
bin Aws, ‘Amr bin Hazm, Abu Sa‘eed Al-Khudri, Zaid bin
Haritha Al-Ansari, Sa‘d bin Habba and Al-Barâ’ bin ‘Azib,
Sahih Al-Bukhari pointed out that he had shared in the fight that
The Messenger of Allâh allowed both Rafi‘ bin
Khadaij and Samura bin Jundub to join the army — though they
were too young. The former proved to be skillful at shooting
arrows; the latter wrestled the former and beat him. The
admission of Rafi‘ made Samura say: "I am stronger than
him, I can overcome him." When the Prophet heard this saying he
ordered them to wrestle. They did. Samura won so he was also
Passing the Night between
Uhud and Madinah:
As night fell upon them there,
they performed both the sunset and the evening prayers and spent
the night there as well. Fifty people were chosen to guard the
camp and go round it. Muhammad bin Maslama Al-Ansari, the hero of
the brigade of Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf, was in charge of the guards.
Whereas Dhakwan bin ‘Abd Qais undertook the responsibility of
guarding the Prophet ,
The Rebellion of ‘Abdullah
bin Ubai and his Followers:
At the end of the night and just
before it was daybreak, the Prophet moved and when he got to
Ash-Shawt he observed the dawn prayer. There he was close enough
to the enemy that they could see one another. It was there that
‘Abdullah bin Ubai — the hypocrite — rebelled against the
Muslims. One-third of the army withdrew with him — that is to
say three hundred fighters. He said, "We do not know why we
shall kill ourselves." He claimed that his withdrawal was no
more than showing protest against the Messenger of Allâh who had already refused
his opinion and accepted that of the others.
Undoubtedly that was not the
real cause of his detachment. If it had been the refusal of his
opinion — as the hypocrite claimed — there would have no
sense whatsoever for his joining the Prophetic army. If it had
been so, he would have refused to go out with the army from the
very beginning of the march. As a matter of fact the real purpose
of this rebellion, withdrawal and detachment — at this delicate
and awkward position and time — was to produce bewilderment,
confusion of mind, and disorder in the Muslims army who were
within the sight and hear range of the enemy who were also
looking forward to seeing more and more dissension on the side of
the Muslims, like themselves. They also aimed at breaking the
high morale of the believers. That would accelerate — in their
opinion — the breakdown and consequently the death of Muhammad,
his faithful Companions and Islam as a whole. The way would then
be clear for the reclaim of presidency, which that hypocrite had
lost on the advent of Islam into Madinah.
Short of Allâh’s Care, the
hypocrite’s plot would have been successful. Banu Haritha of Al-Aws
and Banu Salama of Al-Khazraj were partially impressed by the
hypocrite’s behaviour. Both of them were overwhelmed by
confusion and they had almost started to withdraw, but Allâh’s
Care saved them from that disgrace. About their incident Allâh
"When two parties from
among you were about to lose their heart, but Allâh was
their Wali (Supporter and Protector). And in Allâh
should the believers put their trust." [3:122]
‘Abdullah bin Haram — the
father of Jabir bin ‘Abdullah — attempted to stop their
withdrawal. He reminded the hypocrites of their duty at this
delicate and awkward condition, but in vain. He followed them,
reproached them and urged them to go back saying: "Come and
fight in the way of Allâh or at least be defenders." They
said: "If we had known that you would really fight we would
have not gone back." Having despaired of them, he addressed
them saying: "May Allâh cast you away, you enemies of Allâh.
Allâh will certainly suffice His Prophet." Allâh says
about those hypocrites:
"And that He might
test the hypocrites, it was said to them: ‘Come, fight
in the way of Allâh or (at least) defend yourselves.’
They said: ‘Had we known that fighting will take place,
we would certainly have followed you.’ They were that
day, nearer to disbelief than to Faith, saying with their
mouths what was not in their hearts. And Allâh has full
knowledge of what they conceal." [3:167]
The Remainder of the Islamic
Army are on the Move to Uhud:
With the remainder of fighters,
the Messenger of Allâh moved towards the enemy.
After the rebellion and withdrawal of the hypocrites, the number
of soldiers was reduced to seven hundred only.
The camp of idolaters was
situated in such a place that the many roads leading to Uhud were
almost blocked by them. So the Messenger of Allâh said to his men: "Which
man of you can lead us to where the people (i.e. the idolaters)
are, along a short track that does not pass by them?" Abu
Khaithama said: "O Messenger of Allâh , I am the man you need."
Then he chose a short track that led to Uhud passing by Harrah
Bani Harithah and their farms, leaving the idolaters’ army
On their way they passed by Ha’it
(i.e. the field) of Marba‘ bin Qaizi, who was a blind hypocrite.
When Marba‘ felt and realized that they were the Prophetic
army, he started throwing earth at their faces, so they rushed to
kill him, but the Prophet said:
"Do not kill him. He
is blind in heart and eyes."
The Messenger of Allâh went along till climbed
down the hillock of Uhud at the slope of the valley. He camped
there with his army facing Madinah while their backs were to the
hills of Uhud mountain. So the army of the enemy stood a barrier
between the Muslims and Madinah.
The Defence Plan:
The Messenger of Allâh mobilized his army. He
arranged them into two rows to prepare them for fight. He
selected fifty skillful archers that formed a squad and made them
under the command of ‘Abdullah bin Jubair bin An-Nu‘man Al-Ansari
Al-Awsi Al-Badri. He issued his orders to them to stay where they
were — on a mountain(side) at the south bank of Qanat Al-Wadi (i.e.
a canal of the valley), south east of Muslims camp at about one
hundred and fifty metres from the Islamic army. Later on this
mountain was called the Mountain of Archers.
The Messenger of Allâh clarified the mission of
this squad in words he directed to them. He said to their leader:
"Drive off the horses from us by means of arrows, lest they
should attack us from behind (the rear). Whether we win the
battle or lose it, stand steadily in your position and mind that
we are not attacked from your side."
"Defend our backs! If
you see us slain. Do not come to assist us; and if you
see gaining grounds, do not share us."
In a version by Al-Bukhâri the
"If you see us
snatched into pieces by birds, do not leave this position
of yours till I send for you. And if you see that we have
defeated the enemy and trodden on them do not desert your
position till I send for you."
With the assignment of this
squad and locating it on the mountainside and the issuance of
those strict military orders, the Messenger of Allâh blocked the only groove
that might lead the idolaters stealthily to the rear of Muslim
ranks and might even enable them to encircle them in an
The assignments of posts and
responsibilities for the rest of the army were performed by the
Prophet as follows:
On the right wing, he appointed Al-Mundhir bin ‘Amr. On the
left he appointed Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam, and made Al-Miqdad
bin Al-Aswad his assistant and supporter. Az-Zubair’s function
was to standfast in the face of Khalid bin Al-Waleed’s horsemen.
The Messenger of Allâh selected the top and the
most courageous group to be in the vanguard of the army. They
were notable for their readiness, alertness and bravery and
estimated to be equal to thousands of men.
It was a wise and carefully-laid
plan which revealed the genius of military leadership that the
No other leader could have drawn a more accurate or wise plan.
Although he approached the site later than the enemy, he managed
to occupy better positions. He made the rocky mountainside to
function as shield for the army’s rear and right flank. He was
able, by blocking the only vulnerable gap on the side, to provide
additional maximum protection for the rear as well as the left
wing. For fear of possible defeat, and to deter the Muslims from
fleeing, in which case they would fall easy prisoners in the
hands of the enemy, he chose a high place for encampment.
Moreover a strategic site of this sort would surely inflict heavy
losses on the polytheists if they thought of approaching or
occupying his positions. In a further step, he reduced the enemy
to a narrow scope of choice when they were cornered for
encampment in geographically low positions that would avail them
nothing of the benefits of any possible victory; at the same time
they would not be able to escape the pursuit of the Muslims in
case victory sided with the latter. To make up for the
quantitative shortage in fighting personnel, he chose a picked
body of fighters to stand at the front.
The army of the Prophet was thus fully mobilized
on Shawwal 7th, 3 A.H.
The Messenger of Allâh implants the Spirit of
Bravery among his Armed Forces:
The Messenger of Allâh forbade the Muslims to
start the fight without having an order from him. He, then, wore
two armours — a front armour and a back one. He urged his
Companions to fight and spurred them to show stamina and
steadfastness at fight. He started to implant the spirit of
boldness and bravery in them. To wage and inflame his Companions
and in order to standfast in the fight, he took a sharp sword,
held it in his hand and called out unto his Companions and said:
"Who is ready to take this sword and give it its proper due?"
Many a man set out to take it. Some of them were ‘Ali bin Abi
Talib, Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam and ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab. But
it was granted to none. Abu Dujana Sammak bin Kharsha inquired:
"O Messenger of Allâh, what is its price?" The Prophet
said: "It is
to strike the enemy’s faces with it till it was bent." So
Abu Dujana said: "O Messenger of Allâh I will take it for
that price." and he was given the sword.
Abu Dujana was a man of courage
who used to swagger at war. He had a red band which he wore round
his head. Whenever he was head-banded everybody knew that he was
determined to fight to death. Therefore as soon as Abu Dujana
took the Prophet ’s
sword, he banded his head and started strutting amongst the
Watching him doing that, the
Messenger of Allâh said:
"This is a sort of walking that Allâh detests except in
such a situation."
Recruitment of the Makkan
The idolaters applied the rows
system in the mobilization of their army. The general leadership
of the army was entrusted to Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb, who would
be in the centre-position of the army. Khalid bin Al-Waleed was
on the right wing; whereas ‘Ikrima, the son of Abu Jahl was on
the left. Safwan bin Omaiya was in charge of infantry men. The
archers were under the command of ‘Abdullah bin Abi Rabi‘a.
As for the standard, a squad of
Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar were in charge to bear it. Thus was the
distribution of the posts of the army ever since ‘Abd Munaf had
already assigned them. This assignment had been inherited from
Qusai bin Kilab — as we have previously alluded to in an early
phase of this book. No one had the right to compete them with it.
It was consistent with their traditions that they had inherited
from their ancestors.
Abu Sufyan, the general leader,
reminded his men — the standard bearers — of what had
happened to Quraish on Badr Day (i.e. battle) when their standard
bearer, An-Nadr bin Al-Harith, was captured. In an attempt to
wage their anger and enmity to the Muslims he said: "O Bani
‘Abd Ad-Dar! You have been assigned bearers of our standard and
you know that the standard is the first thing that the enemy
attacks. Should it fall, we fall down too. Therefore, I say
either you guarantee its safety or leave it for us, and we will
certainly suffice you that task."
Abu Sufyan’s attempt seemed to
be fruitful. For his speech made Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar so extremely
angry that they threatened him and almost attacked him for that.
Addressing him, they said: "You want us to deliver you the
custodianship of the standard? Tomorrow when we fight them, you
will witness our deeds." As a matter of fact, they fought
bravely and stoodfast in defence of the standard till they were
Political Manoeuvres of
A little time before the break
out of the battle, Quraish made some endeavours to sow the seeds
of discord and dispute among the Muslims. First, Abu Sufyan sent
to the Helpers a message saying: "Leave us alone to fight
our cousins and do not interfere. If you stand aside, we will not
fight you; for fighting you is not a target of ours." But
that attempt proved to be fruitless. What could such a wicked
scheme do to those whose Faith was as solid and firm as
mountains?! The Helpers reply was undoubtedly disappointing and
contrary to Abu Sufyan’s expectations.
The zero-hour was due. The two
parties drew nearer. Undespaired by the first failure, Quraish
made another attempt, for the same purport but now with the
assistance of a traitor called Abu ‘Amir Al-Fasiq, whose name
was ‘Abd ‘Amr bin Saifi. He was called a monk, but the
Messenger of Allâh nicknamed
him Al-Fâsiq (i.e. perverted transgressor; dissolute). As he was
the head of Aws in Al-Jahiliya, he could not tolerate Islam when
it came. He announced his enmity to the Messenger of Allâh in public. He left
Madinah for the Quraishites in Makkah to rally them against the
Messenger of Allâh
and to urge them to start the fight against him. He claimed that
he was obeyed and esteemed by his people and that as soon as they
saw him come they would join him immediately.
So he was the first one among
the mob and slaves of Quraish to show resistance. He called out
unto his people, recognized them and said: "O kinfolk of Aws!
I am Abu ‘Amir." Their reply was "No eyes of anybody
shall be consoled by viewing you, O Fâsiq." Hearing them
say so, he said: "My people must have been afflicted by an
evil after my departure." Therefore when the fight broke
out, he fought them fiercely and pelted his people with stones,
That was how the second attempt
of Quraish to sow the seeds of discord among people of Faith.
This, however, revealed the great terror of the Quraishites cast
in their hearts in spite of their supremacy in number and
The effort of Quraishite
Women at waging the Zeal of Men:
Quraishi-women participated in
the battle led by the wife of Abu Sufyan, Hind bint ‘Utbah.
They wandered among the rows of the idolaters, tapped on
tambourines, encouraged men to fight, inflamed the emotions of
heroes, lancers, swordsmen and brave fighters. At one time they
addressed the standard-bearers:
"O Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar!
O home defenders,
Strike with your sharp
And at another time they would
wage people’s zeal by singing:
"If you fight (bravely),
we will embrace
unfold mats to welcome you.
But if you flee from the
battlefield, we leave you,
Desert you and no more
The two parties approached and
grew very close to each another. The phases of fight started. The
first combatant was the standard-bearer, Talha bin Abi Talha Al-‘Abdari,
who was the most distinguished idolater. He was one of the
bravest men of Quraish fighters. Muslims nicknamed him ‘the ram
of the battalion.’ He came forth riding a camel and challenged
the Muslims to a single combat. People refrained from fighting
him due to his bravery; but Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam advanced
for the fight. He did not give the ‘Ram’ any chance to fight
but fell on him like a lion on his camel’s back, pulled him
down to the ground and slaughtered him with his sword.
The Messenger of Allâh who was watching that
wonderful incident exclaimed: Allâhu Akbar that is ‘Allâh
is the Greatest’ and the Muslims exclaimed Allâhu Akbar
too. He praised Az-Zubair when he said:
"Every Prophet has a
disciple and Az-Zubair is a disciple of mine."
Soon the general engagement
ensued and the fight of the two parties grew fierce everywhere on
the battlefield. The strain of the fight was centred round the
carriers of the standard. After the death of their leader Talha
bin Abi Talha, Banu ‘Abd Ad-Dar alternated the mission
successively. Talha’s brother, ‘Uthman, ran forward and
seized the standard which lay by the lifeless body of his
brother, chanting: "The standard-bearer has the right to dye
its shaft in blood, till it be beaten in his hand." Hamzah
bin ‘Abdul Muttalib attacked and dealt him a blow that cut his
arm and shoulder and went down to his navel to uncover his lung.
The standard was raised up again
by Abu Sa‘d bin Abi Talha; but Sa‘d bin Abi Waqqas shot him
with a deadly arrow that hit him at his throat and made his
tongue hang out breathing his last.
In another version it was
narrated that Abu Sa‘d lifted the standard up and challenged
the Muslims to fight him. ‘Ali bin Abi Talib went forth. They
exchanged two blows. Then ‘Ali gave him a terminal blow that
finished him off.
Musafi‘ bin Talha bin Abi
Talha then hoisted the standard, but was soon shot with an arrow
by ‘Asim bin Thabit bin Abi Al-Aqlah. His brother Kilab bin
Talha bin Abi Talha followed him picked the banner and lifted it
up; but Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam attacked him and managed to
kill him. Their brother Al-Jallas bin Talha bin Abi Talha lifted
the banner up but Talha bin ‘Ubaidu-Allâh stabbed him to death.
They also said that it was ‘Asim bin Thabit who managed to deal
a terminal blow to him.
All those six people killed
round and in defence of the standard, belonged to one house, the
house of Abi Talha ‘Abdullah bin ‘Uthman bin ‘Abd Ad-Dar.
Another man from Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar, called Artat bin Sharhabeel
carried the standard but he also was killed by ‘Ali bin Abi
Talib. Others said it was Hamzah who killed him not ‘Ali.
Then it was Shuraih bin Qariz
who was killed by Quzman — he was a hypocrite who fought for
prestige only, not in defence of Islam. Abu Zaid ‘Amr bin ‘Abd
Munaf Al-‘Abdari lifted the standard up but he was killed by
Quzman too. A son of Sharhabeel bin Hashim Al-‘Abdari hoisted
it again and was also killed by Quzman.
So we see that ten fighters of
Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar — the standard-bearers — were annihilated.
Seeing that none of ‘Abd Ad-Dars survived to carry the
standard, a slave of theirs — called Sawab — came to raise it.
The slave showed more admirable sorts of bravery and
steadfastness than his former masters. Sawab, the slave went on
fighting till his hand was cut off. So he knelt down and embraced
the banner, leant it against his chest and neck lest it should
fall down to the ground. He remained fighting steadily and
steadfastly till he was killed. In the meanwhile he did not stop
saying: "O Allâh, have I been excused?" After the
death of the slave Sawab, the standard fell down to the ground,
and remained there as there was no one to carry it.
Whilst the brunt of the battle
centred around the standard, bitter fighting was going on
everywhere on the battlefield. The spirit of Faith overwhelmed
the Muslims’ ranks; so they rushed among the idolaters as if
they had been an outbreak of a destructive flood that overflowed
and knocked down all dams and barriers standing in its way "I
seek death, I seek death." That was their announced motto on
Abu Dujana, recognized by the
red band worn round his head, came forth, fighting with the sword
of the Messenger of Allâh . He was determined to
pay its price at all costs. He killed all the idolaters that
stood on his way splitting and dispersing their ranks. Az-Zubair
bin Al-‘Awwam said:
"I felt angry and
discouraged when the Messenger of Allâh refused to give me the
sword but gave it to Abu Dujana. I said to myself: ‘I am his
paternal cousin — the cousin of his aunt Safiya — a
Quraishite, besides, I was the first who demanded it and yet he
favoured him to me. By Allâh, I will watch how he will use it.’
So I followed him, I saw him take out his red band and wear it
round his head. Seeing him like that, the Helpers said, ‘Abu
Dujana had worn the band of death.’ Then he set out saying
‘I am the one whom my
intimate friend made covenant with, when we were under
the palm-trees on the mountain side.
The covenant that we made was
that I should not fight at the rear.
But fight at the front
heroically with the sword of Allâh and His Messenger.’
No one stood the way of Abu
Dujana but was killed. There was a man among the idolaters whose
only target was to finish off the wounded Muslims. During the
fight Abu Dujana drew near that man; so I implored Allâh that
they might engage in combat. They in fact did and exchanged two
sword-strokes. The idolater struck Abu Dujana, but he escaped it
and it pierced into his leather shield. The idolater’s sword
now stuck to it, Abu Dujana struck him with the sword and killed
him. Into the thick of the battle, he rushed to kill a
person who was inciting the enemy to fight the Muslims. Upon this
the person shrieked and lo! it was a woman. Abu Dujana spared her
saying: ‘I respect the Prophet ’s sword too much to
use it on a woman.’ The woman was Hind bint ‘Utbah."
Describing the same incident, Az-Zubair
bin Al-‘Awwam said: "I saw Abu Dujana raising a sword over
the parting part of Hind bint ‘Utba’s head then he moved it
off. I said to myself: ‘Allâh and His Messenger know best.’
(i.e. know why he acted like that)."
Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib
displayed wonderful feats of gallantry against the overwhelming
odds which stood unparalled and created consternation and
confusion in the disbelieving hosts. Heroes dispersed off his way
as if they had been tree-leaves blown away by strong wind. In
addition to his effective contribution to the annihilation of the
idolaters who stood in defence of the standard, he was even of
much greater effect at fighting against men of bravery and
distinguished horsemen. It was Allâh’s Will that he be
murdered when he was at the top. He was not killed in a face-to-face
fight on the battlefield — in the normal way by which heroes
die — but rather assassinated in the dead-dark as was the
custom of killing generous and noble men that were impossible to
kill in an honourable fight.
Assassination of Asadullâh (the
Lion of Allâh) Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib:
Hamzah’s assassin, Wahshi bin
Harb, described how he killed Hamzah. He said:
"I was a slave working to
Jubair bin Mut‘im, whose paternal uncle Tu‘aimah bin ‘Adi
was injured at Badr Battle. So when Quraish marched to Uhud,
Jubair said to me: ‘If you kill Hamzah, the uncle of Muhammad,
stealthily you shall be manumitted.’ "
"So I marched with the
people to Uhud." He used to describe himself as, "I am
a picaro good at spearing." "So when the two parties
fought, I set out seeking Hamzah. I saw him amidst people
fighting. He was like a white and black striped camel, striking
severely with his sword and no one could stand on his way. By Allâh!
When I was getting ready and trying to seize the fit opportunity
to spear him, hiding sometimes behind a tree or a rock hoping
that he might draw nearer and be within range — at that moment
I caught sight of Siba‘ bin ‘Abd Al-‘Uzza going closer
towards him. When Hamzah observed him, he said: ‘Come on! O son
of the ‘clitoris-cutter.’ — for his mother used to be a
circumciser. Then he struck one strong stroke that could hardly
miss his head."
Wahshi said: "Then I
balanced my spear and shook it till I was content with it, then I
speared him and it went down into his stomach and issued out
between his legs. He attempted moving towards me but he was
overcome by his wound. I left him there with the spear in his
entrails till he died. Then I came to him, pulled out my spear
and returned to the encampment place. I stayed there and did not
go out, for he was the only one I sought. I only killed him to
free myself. So as soon as I got back to Makkah, I became a free
Bringing the Situation under
Although the death of Asad (Lion)
of Allâh and His Messenger — Hamzah bin ‘Abdul
Muttalib — was a great loss, the Muslims maintained full
control over the whole situation on the battlefield. On that day,
Abu Bakr, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, Az-Zubair
bin Al-‘Awwam, Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair, Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh,
‘Abdullah bin Jahsh, Sa‘d bin Ar-Rabî‘ and Anas bin An-Nadr
and others — all of them fought so fiercely, effectively and
efficiently that they broke the strong will of the idolaters and
From his Wife’s lap to
Sword-fights and Sorrows:
One of the brave adventurers of
that day was Hanzala Al-Ghaseel — He was Hanzala bin Abu ‘Amir.
Abu ‘Amir was the very monk that was nicknamed ‘Al-Fâsiq’
(i.e. the dissolute, evildoer). He is the very one that we have
recently mentioned. Hanzala, who was newly married, left his wife’s
bed for Al-Jihâd (Fight in the cause of Allâh). He set
out the moment he heard of the call to Al-Jihâd. When he
faced the idolaters on the battlefield, he made his way through
their ranks till he reached their leader Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin
Harb and had almost killed him, if he had not been ordained to be
a martyr. For at that moment he was seen by Shaddad bin Al-Aswad
who struck him to death.
The Contribution of the
Archers Squad to the Battle:
The archers squad whom the
Messenger of Allâh
located on the Archers Mountain, had the upper hand in
administering the war activities to go in favour of the Muslim
army. The Makkan horsemen — commanded by Khalid bin Al-Waleed,
supported by Abu ‘Amir Al-Fâsiq — had for three times
attacked the left wing of the Muslim army with the aim of
crushing it and then infiltrating into the rear to create a sort
of confusion and disorder in the ranks of the Muslims and
subsequently inflict heavy defeat on them. But thanks to the
dexterity and great efforts of the archers, the three assaults
War activities went on and on
fierecly with the Muslims in full command of the whole military
developments until the idolaters finally staggered and retreated,
leaving all motives of alleged pride, and affected dignity in
oblivion, and their standard trodden by the feet of the fighters
with none ever courageous enough to approach it. It seemed as if
the three thousand idolaters had been fighting thirty thousand
Muslims and not merely several hundreds.
Ibn Ishaq said: "Then Allâh
sent down His Help unto the Muslims and verified His Promise to
them. They chased the idolaters and evacuated them from their
camp. No doubt it was a certain defeat." In a version by ‘Abdullah
bin Az-Zubair that his father had said: "By Allâh, I was
watching the servants of Hind bint ‘Utbah and her women friends
fleeing with their garments gathered up. No one was there to
prevent us from capturing them."
In another version by Al-Barâ’
bin ‘Azib — mentioned in Sahih Al-Bukhâri — he said:
"When we fought them, they fled, and their women could be
seen fleeing in the mountains with their anklets and legs
revealed." The Muslims pursued the enemies putting
them to sword and collecting the spoils.
The Archers’ Fatal Mistake:
While the small army of Islam
were recording the second absolute and clear victory over the
Makkans — which was no less in splendour and glory than the
first one at Badr — the majority of the archers on the
mountainside committed a fatal mistake that turned the whole
situation upside down, and constituted a source of heavy losses
amongst the Muslims. It has almost brought about the murder of
the Prophet , and
left a very bad impression on the fame and dignity they
deservedly earned at Badr Battle.
We have already spoken about the
positive orders given to the archers to hold on to their position
whatever the course of the main engagement. In spite of those
strict orders, and their leader’s — ‘Abdullah bin Jubair
— warning, forty archers deserted their posts, enticed by the
too soon roar of victory as well as worldly avarice for the
spoils of war. The others, however, nine in number and
‘Abdullah, their leader, decided to abide by the Prophet ’s order and stay where
they were until they were given leave or killed to the last.
Consequently the cleft was left inadequately defended .
The shrewd Khalid bin Al-Waleed
seized this golden opportunity to turn swiftly round to the rear
of the Muslim army and encompass them. Exterminating Ibn Jubair
and his group, they fell promptly upon the rear of the Muslims
and his horsemen uttered a shout that signalled the new military
developments. The polytheists returned once again to
counterattack the Muslims. An idolist woman — called ‘Umra
bint ‘Alqama Al-Harithiyah — rushed to the lying-on-earth
standard, picked it up and hoisted it. The idolaters gathered
together around the standard and called out unto one another till
they encircled the Muslims and stoodfast to fight again.
The Muslims consequently got
entrapped between two millstones.
The Messenger of Allâh was then among a small
group of fighters — nine in number at the rear of the army<,
watching the engagement and braving the Muslim fighters. Khalid
and his men took him by utter surprise, and obliged him to follow
either of two options:
- To flee for his life and
abandon his army to its doomed end, or
- To take action at the risk
of his life, rally the ranks of the Muslims again and
work their way through the hills of Uhud towards the
The genius of the Messenger of
Allâh , his
peerless and matchless courage made him opt for the second course.
He raised his voice calling out unto his Companions: "Slaves
of Allâh." He did that though he knew that his loud voice
would be heard by the idolaters before it was heard by the
Muslims. He called out unto them risking his life in this
The idolaters, indeed,
recognized him and reached his position even before the other
Muslims could do so.
The encompassment of the Muslims
revealed three categories of people: The first group were those
who were only interested in themselves and they went so mad that
they fled. They left the battlefield and did not know what
happened to the others. Some of this group fled as far as Madinah.
Some others went up the mountain.
The second Muslim group were
those who returned to the battle, but mixed with the idolaters in
such a way that they could not recognize one another.
Consequently some of them were killed by mistake. On the
authority of Al-Bukhari, he states that ‘Aishah - may ALlah be
pleased with her - said: "When it was Uhud Battle, the
idolaters were utterly defeated. Satan then called out: ‘O
slaves of Allâh. Beware the rear (i.e. the enemy is approaching
from behind)’. So those who were at the front turned back and
fought the ones who were behind."
Then Hudhaifah caught sight of
his father ‘Al-Yaman’ about to be killed by other Muslims. So
he said: "O servants of Allâh! Beware! This is my father.
This is my father." ‘Aishah - may ALlah be pleased with
her - said: "But they did not part with him till he was
killed." Hudhaifah then said: "May Allâh forgive you."
And ‘Urwa said: "By Allâh, from that time on Hudhaifah
has always been blessed and wealthy till he died."<
That was because he forgave them and refused to take any blood-money
for his father’s murder but recommended that it be spent in
This Muslim group suffered from
great bewilderment, and disorder prevailed among them. A lot of
them got lost and did not know where to go. At this awkward time
they heard someone calling: "Muhammad is killed." This
news made them even more bewildered and almost out of sense.
Their morale broke down, or almost did in a great number of
individuals. Some of them stopped fighting, slackened, and cast
down their weapons. Others thought of getting in touch with ‘Abdullah
bin Ubai — the head of the hypocrites — and seeking his
assistance to fetch them a security pledge from Abu Sufyan.
Anas bin An-Nadr passed by those
people who were shuddering of fear and panic, and inquired:
"What are you waiting for?" They said: "The
Messenger of Allâh
has been killed." "What do you live for after Muhammad Come on and die for what
the Messenger of Allâh has died for." Then
he said: "O Allâh I apologize for what these people (i.e.
the Muslims) have done; and I swear disavowal of what the
idolaters have perpetrated." Then he moved on till he was
encountered by Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh who asked him: "Where to,
Abu ‘Umar?" Anas replied: "Ah, how fine the scent of
the Paradise is! I smell it here in Uhud." He went on and
fought against the idolaters till he was killed. Nobody but his
sister could recognize his dead body. It had been cut and stabbed
by over eighty swords, arrows or spears. It was by the tip of his
finger that she — after the battle — recognized him.<
Thabit bin Ad-Dahdah called unto
his people saying:
"O kinfolk of Helpers, if
killed, Allâh is Everlasting and He never dies. Fight in defence
of your Faith. Allâh will help you and so you will be victorious."
A group of Helpers joined him and all set out and attacked a
battalion of Khalid’s horsemen. He kept on fighting till he and
his friends were killed.
An Emigrant passed by a Helper
who was besmeared by blood. He said: "O fellow! Have you
heard of Muhammad ’s
murder?" The Helper answered: "If Muhammad were killed, then he
must have completed the delivery of the Message. So fight in
defence of your religion!"
With such boldness and
encouragement, the Muslims soon recovered their spirits, came
round to senses and desisted the idea of surrender or contacting
the hypocrite ‘Abdullah bin Ubai. They took up arms and resumed
the fight attempting to make way to the headquarters,
particularly after the news of the Prophet ’s death had been
falsified. The glad tidings nerved them, and helped them to
manage quite successfully the break of the military blockade, and
concentrate their forces in an immune place to resume a
relentless and fierce fight against the polytheists.
The third group of Muslims were
those who cared for nothing except the Prophet . At the head of them
were notable Companions like Abu Bakr, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab,
‘Ali bin Abi Talib and others , who hastened to protect
the Prophet through
As those groups of Muslims were
receiving the blows of the idolaters and resisting instantly, the
fight flared up around the Messenger of Allâh , who had only nine
people around him. We have already mentioned that when the
idolaters started their encompassment there were only nine
persons around the Messenger of Allâh ; and that as soon as he
called out unto the Muslims: "Come on! I am the Messenger of
Allâh ," the
idolaters heard his voice and recognized him. So they turned back
and attacked him with all their power before any of his
Companions ran to his aid.
A violent raging struggle broke
out between the nine Muslims and the idolaters during which
peerless sort of love, self-sacrifice, bravery and heroism were
Muslim, on the authority of Anas
bin Malik narrated that the Messenger of Allâh along with seven Helpers
and two Emigrants, was confined to a trap when the idolaters
attacked him. The Messenger of Allâh then said: " He who
pushes back those idolaters, will be housed in Paradise." or
"He will be my Companion in Paradise." One of the
Helpers stepped forward and fought the idolaters in defence of
the Prophet till he
was killed. Then they attacked the Messenger again. The same process
was repeated again and again till all the seven Helpers were
killed. Then the Messenger of Allâh said to his two
Quraishite Companions: "We have not done justice to our
The last of those seven Helpers
was ‘Amara bin Yazeed bin As-Sakan, who kept on fighting till
his wounds neutralized him and he fell dead.
The Most Awkward Hour in the
After the fall of Ibn Sakan, the
Messenger of Allâh
remained alone with only those two Quraishites. In a version by
Abu ‘Uthman — authorized in As-Sahihain— he said:
"At that time, there were none with the Prophet except Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh
and Sa‘d bin Abi Waqqas. That was the most awkward and dangerous
hour for the Prophet ,
but it was a golden opportunity for the idolaters who promptly
took advantage of it. They concentrated their attack on the
Prophet and looked
forward to killing him.
‘Utbah bin Abi Waqqas pelted
him with stones. One of the stones fell on his face. His lower
right incisor Ruba‘iya (i.e. the tooth that is between a
canine and a front tooth) was injured. His lower lip was wounded.
He was also attacked by ‘Abdullah bin Shihab Az-Zuhri who
cleaved his forehead. ‘Abdullah bin Qami’a (Qami’a
means ‘a humiliated woman’), who was an obstinate strong
horseman, struck him violently on his shoulder with his sword;
and that stroke hurt the Messenger of Allâh for over a month —
though it was not strong enough to break his two armours. He
dealt a heavy blow on his cheek. It was so strong that two rings
of his iron-ringed helmet penetrated into his holy cheek. "Take
this stroke from me, I am Ibn Qami’a." He said while
striking the Messenger with his sword. The Messenger of Allâh replied — while he was
wiping the blood flowing on his face: "I implore Allâh to
humiliate you." (i.e. Aqma’aka Allâh). In Al-Bukhâri
it is stated his incisor broke, his head was cleaved, and that he
started wiping the blood off it and saying: "(I wonder) how
can people who cut the face of their Prophet and break the incisor of
his — he who calls them to worship Allâh. How can such people
thrive or be successful?" About that incident, Allâh, Glory
is to Him, sent down a Qur’ânic verse saying:
"Not for you (O
but for Allâh) is the decision; whether He turns in
mercy to (pardons) them or punishes them; verily, they
are the Zâliműn (polytheists, disobedients, and
At-Tabarani states that the
"Allâh’s Wrath is great on those who besmear the face of
His Messenger," observed silence for a short while and then
"O Allâh, forgive my
people for they have no knowledge."
In Sahih Muslim it is
stated that the Messenger of Allâh said:
"My Lord, forgive my
people for they have no knowledge."
In Ash-Shifa — a book
by ‘Ayad Al-Qadi — it is related that the Prophet said:
"O Allâh, guide my
people for they have no knowledge."
It is quite certain that killing
the Prophet was
their primary aim, but the two Quraishites — Sa‘d bin Abi
Waqqas and Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh, who showed great and rare
courage and fought so fiercely and boldly that — though they
were only two — were able to stop the idolaters short of
realizing their aim. They were of the best skillful Arab archers
and kept on militating in defence of the Messenger of Allâh till the whole squad of
idolaters was driven off him .
The Messenger of Allâh emptied his quiver of
arrows and said to Sa‘d bin Abi Waqqas: "Shoot, an arrow
Sa‘d. May my father and mother be sacrified for you.<"
The Prophet had
never gathered his parents except in the case of Sa‘d — a
privilege granted to him for his efficiency.
In a version by Jabir —
authorized by An-Nasa’i — concerning the attitude of Talha
bin ‘Ubaidullâh towards the gathering of idolaters around the
Messenger of Allâh
— when there were only some Helpers with him — Jabir said:
"When the idolaters reached him, the Messenger of Allâh said: ‘Who will suffice
us their evils (i.e. fight them back)?’ Talha said: ‘I will.’"
Then Jabir mentioned the advance of the Helpers to fight and how
they were killed one after the other in a similar way to Muslim’s
narration — "When all the Helpers were killed, Talha
proceeded forward to fight as much as the other eleven ones did
till his hand was hurt and his fingers were cut off. So he said:
‘Be they cut off!’ The Prophet said: ‘If you had said:
In the Name of Allâh, the angels would have raised you up before
the people’s very eyes.’" Then he said: "Allâh
drove the idolaters off them." In Al-Ikleel
— a book by Hakim — it is stated that Talha had sustained
thirty-nine or thirty-five wounds, and his fingers (i.e. the
forefinger and the one next to it — got paralyzed.
In a version by Qais bin Abi Hâzim
— authorized by Al-Bukhari, he said: "I saw the hand of
Talha paralyzed. That was because he protected the Prophet with it in Uhud Battle."<
At-Tirmidhi stated that the
Prophet then said
about Talha: "He who desires to see a martyr walking on the
ground, let him look at Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh."<
Abu Da’űd At-Tayalisi on the
authority of ‘Aishah - may ALlah be pleased with her - , said:
"Whenever Uhud Day (i.e. battle) was mentioned, Abu Bakr
used to say: ‘That was Talha’s day (i.e. battle).<
Abu Bakr recited a verse of poetry about him: ‘O Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh!
Paradise is due to you as water-springs are due to deer to drink
out of.’ At the awkward and most delicate
circumstances, Allâh, Glory is to Him, sent down His invisible
Help. In a version by Sa‘d — cleared and authorized in Sahih
Al-Bukhari and Muslim — he said: "I saw the
Messenger of Allâh
on Uhud Day with two men — dressed in white defending him
fiercely — I have never seen similar to them neither before
Uhud nor after it." In another version: "He means to
say that they were Gabriel and Michael".
All those events happened in no
time. If the Prophet ’s
elite Companions had realized the grave situation immediately,
they would have rushed on the spot and would not have left him
sustain these wounds. Unfortunately, they got there after the
Messenger of Allâh
had been wounded and six of the Helpers killed, the seventh was
staggering under the brunt of wounds and desperately militating
in defence of the Prophet . However as soon as they
arrived they encircled the Messenger with their bodies and
weapons and were alert enough to prevent the enemies from
reaching him. The first one who returned to give help, was his
cavemate Abu Bakr As-Siddiq - may Allah be pleased with him - .
In a version by ‘Aishah - may
Allah be pleased with her - recorded in Ibn Hibban’s Sahih,
she narrated that Abu Bakr had said:
"When it was Uhud Day and
at the time that the Prophet was left behind, I was
the first to go back and see him. Before him I saw a man fighting
to shield him from the enemies. I said to myself: ‘I wish he
were Talha. Let my father and mother be sacrificed for you. (O
Allâh) Let him be Talha! Let my parents be sacrificed for you!’
On the way, I was overtaken by Abu ‘Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah, who
was then moving as swiftly as a bird. We both rushed to dress the
Prophet ’s wounds.
There we found Talha suffering from serious wounds before the
Messenger of Allâh
The Prophet said:
‘See to your brother. His deed entitled him for an abode in
Paradise.’ I noticed that two rings of the iron-ringed helmet
had penetrated his cheek. So I set out to take them out; but Abu
‘Ubaidah demanded: ‘By Allâh, O Abu Bakr — I beseech you,
let me do it myself.’ Fearing to hurt the Prophet he started pulling one
of the two rings out very slowly and carefully with his mouth.
Then he pulled the arrow out by his mouth, too. Consequently, his
front tooth fell. Then I proceeded to pull the second out; but
Abu ‘Ubaidah besought me to leave it: ‘O, Abu Bakr, I adjure
you by Allâh to let me do it.’ He pulled the second ring very
slowly and carefully with his mouth — till it came out. The
Messenger of Allâh
said: ‘See to your brother. He has proved to be worthy of being
housed in Paradise.’ We approached Talha to cure him but found
out that he had had some ten sword-strokes in his body.< (This
showed how efficiently Talha had fought and struggled on that day)."
At those awkward moments of that
day, a group of Muslim heroes gathered around the Prophet forming a shield to
protect him from the idolaters. Some of them were Abu Dujana, Mus‘ab
bin ‘Umair, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, Sahl bin Haneef, Malik bin
— Sinan the father of Abu Sa‘îd Al-Khudri, Umm‘Amara,
Nusaiba bint Ka‘b Al-Mâziniya, Qatada bin An-Nu‘man, ‘Umar
bin Al-Khattab, Hatib bin Abi Balta‘a and Abu Talha.
The number of idolaters was
steadily increasing; and their attacks, naturally, got severer.
Their press had increased to an extent that the Messenger of Allâh
fell into one of
the holes dug and designed by Abu ‘Amir Al-Fasiq to be used as
traps. His knee scratched and ‘Ali helped him by grasping his
hand up. Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh took him in his lap till he
could stand upright. Nafi‘ bin Jubair said: I heard an Emigrant
say: "I have witnessed Uhud Battle and watched how arrows
had been hurled from all directions at the Prophet . None of them however
hit him. ‘Abdullah, bin Shihab Az-Zuhri said: ‘Guide me to
Muhammad ! By Allâh,
If I didn’t kill him, I would not hope to live.’ Although the
Messenger of Allâh
was next to him, alone — but he did not observe him. Safwan, a
co-polytheist of his, blamed him (for not translating his words
into deeds), but ‘Abdullah swore that he did not see him (the
Prophet ) and added
that he might be immune to our attempts on his life. He also said
that four of them pledged to make a fresh attempt and kill him,
but also to no avail.
The Muslims showed unprecedented
rare heroism and marvellous sacrifices. Abu Talha — for
instance — shielded the Messenger of Allâh by his body and used his
chest to protect him against the enemy arrows. Anas related that
on Uhud Day when people dispersed off the Prophet , Abu Talhah was a
skillful sort of archer who would pull arrows so much that he
broke two or three bows that day. When a man passed along with a
quiver full of arrows, the Prophet would say: "Spread
the arrows to Abu Talhah!" Then when the Prophet watched people shooting,
Abu Talhah would say: "I sacrifice my father and mother for
your safety. Do not go too close lest an arrow of theirs should
hit you. I would rather die than see you hurt."<
Abu Dujana stood before the
Messenger of Allâh
and used to protect him from the arrows by his back. Hatib bin
Balta‘a followed ‘Utbah bin Abi Waqqas — who broke the
honourable incisor (of the Prophet ) — struck him with the
sword, cracked his head and took his mare and sword. Sa‘d bin
Abi Waqqas was so keen to kill his brother ‘Utbah, but he could
not; however, Hatib could.
Sahl bin Haneef — a hero
archer — who had pledged to die in the cause of Allâh, also
played a prominent part in Uhud hostilities.
The Messenger of Allâh himself was involved in
shooting arrows. In a version by Qatadah bin An-Nu‘man that the
Messenger of Allâh
shot so many arrows that the two ends of his bow were flattened.
So Qatadah bin An-Nu‘man took it to remain with him for good.
On that day his eye was so hurt that it fell down onto his cheek;
but the Messenger of Allâh reput it in its socket
with his hand and it became the better and the more sharp-sighted
of the two.
On that day ‘Abdur Rahman bin
‘Awf kept on fighting till his mouth was hurt and got broken.
He sustained over twenty wounds, some in his leg, and that lamed
Malik bin Sinan, the father of
Abi Sa‘eed Al-Khudri sucked the blood out of the Prophet ’s cheek till he
cleaned it. The Prophet said: "Spit it!".
But Malik said: "By Allâh, I will never spit it". Then
he set out to fight. The Prophet then said: "He who
wants to see a man of the people of Paradise, let him look at
this one." No sooner had he resumed fighting than he was
martyred in the thick of the battle.
Umm ‘Amarah participated in
the fight too. She encountered Ibn Qami’a in combat, and
sustained a slight wound on her shoulder, but she herself also
struck him with her sword several times but he survived because
he was wearing two armours. She, however, went on striking until
her wounds counted twelve.
Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair, in his
turn, fought fiercely and violently defending the Prophet against the attacks of
Ibn Qami’a and his fellows. He was carrying the standard with
his right hand. In the process of fighting, it was cut off, so he
grabbed the standard in his left hand till this was also
amputated so he knelt down and shielded it with his chest and
neck. Ibn Qami’a then killed him, mistaking him for the
Messenger of Allâh
on account of resemblance in appearance. Only then did Ibn Qami’a
has been killed.’
No sooner had Ibn Qami’a
uttered that ominous sentence than consternation spread among
followers, and their morale was drastically reduced.
Consequently, confusion and a miserable state of disorder
prevailed amongst them. Whilst the rumours managed to adversely
act amongst the Muslims, it alleviated the sharp impact of the
assaults of the polytheists who came to believe that they did
really achieve their final objective and so they turned towards
mutilating the dead bodies.
When Mus‘ab was killed, the
Messenger of Allâh
delivered the standard to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. ‘Ali, in
conjunction with the other Companions, went on fighting bravely
and set marvellous examples of heroism, courage and endurance in
both defence and attack.
Then the Messenger of Allâh made his way to his
encircled army. Ka‘b bin Malik, who was the first one to
recognize the approaching Prophet , shouted as loudly as he
could: "O folks of Muslims, be cherished! The Messenger of
Allâh is here."
But the Messenger of Allâh signed to him to stop
lest his position should be located by the idolaters. Upon
hearing the shout, the Muslims immediately raced towards the
source of the shout which brought about thirty Companions to
gather around the Prophet . With this assembled
number of his Companions, the Messenger of Allâh started drawing a planned
withdrawal to the hillocks nearby.
Hostilities of the enemy grew
fiercer than ever with the aim of foiling the plan of withdrawal
of the Muslims. Their attempts however proved to be fruitless due
to the heroic steadfastness of the lions of Islam.
‘Uthman bin ‘Abdullah bin Al-Mugheerah
— one of the enemy horsemen — progressed towards the
Messenger of Allâh
while saying: "Either I kill him (i.e. Muhammad ) or I will be killed."
The Messenger of Allâh moved to encounter him
but his mare tripped into some holes. So Al-Harith bin As-Simma
combated with the enemy, and struck him on his leg so he went
lame, then he finished him off, took his arm and overtook the
Messenger of Allâh .
But later on another Makkan
horseman, called ‘Abdullah bin Jabir, attacked Al-Harith bin As-Simma,
and struck him on the shoulder with his sword and he was carried
to the camp of the Muslims suffering from serious wounds. Anyway
that very idolater did not escape death, for Abu Dujana — the
red head-banded hero and adventurer — struck him heavily and
cut his head off.
During this bitter fight, a
desire to sleep overwhelmed the Muslims — that was a security
and tranquillity to help His slave Muslims as the Qur’ân spoke
in this context. Abu Talhah said: "I was one of those who
were possessed by a desire to sleep on Uhud Day. On that day my
sword fell off my hand several times. Again and again it fell
down and again and again I picked it up."<
In a regular withdrawal and with
great bravery and boldness, the Muslims finally retreated to the
cover of Mountain Uhud. Then, the rest of the army followed them
to that safe position. In this manner, the genius of Muhammad foiled that of Khalid
Ibn Ishaq related that: "When
the Messenger of Allâh was going up the
hillock, he was followed by Ubai bin Khalaf who was saying: ‘Where
is Muhammad Either
I kill him or I will be killed.’ The Companions of Muhammad said: ‘O Messenger of
Allâh, do you mind if one of us combats with him?’ But the
Messenger of Allâh
said: ‘Leave him!’ So when he drew nearer, the Messenger of
Allâh took the
spear from Al-Harith bin As-Simma. He shivered violently in such
a way that made all of them scatter in all directions violently
and impulsively. Then he faced him, observed his clavicle through
a gap between the wide opening of the armour and the part of his
neck enclosed by. He speared him in that spot. The effect of the
stroke was so strong that it made him roll off his horse over and
over. When he returned to Quraish, they found that he had only
had a small scratch in his neck. So when blood became congested
he said: ‘By Allâh, Muhammad has killed me.’ Hearing him say
so, they said: ‘By Allâh you are afraid to death. By Allâh,
you are possessed by a devil.’ He replied: ‘He had already
told me when we were in Makkah: ‘I will kill you.’ By Allâh,
had he spate on me, he would have killed me.’ Eventually, the
enemy of Allâh breathed his last at a place called Sarif, while
they were taking him back to Makkah." In a
version by Abul-Aswad, on the authority of ‘Urwa: He was lowing
like a bull and saying: "By the One in Whose Hand is my
soul, if (the pain) I am suffering from now were distributed
among the people of Al-Majaz, it would cause them to die."<
During the withdrawal of the
Messenger of Allâh
up to the cover of the mountain, a big rock blocked his way. The
Prophet tried to
mount it, but having worn a short heavy armour, and being
seriously wounded — he could not ascend it. Readily enough
Talha sat in a position that enabled the Prophet to stand on his back.
Then he lifted him up till he stood on it. The Prophet then said: "Talha,
after this job, is eligible for the Garden (Paradise)."<
When the Messenger of Allâh settled down in his head
quarters in the hillock, the idolaters started their last attack
upon the Muslims. Ibn Ishaq related that: "While the Prophet
was on the way to
the hillock, a group of Quraishite elite ascended the mountain.
They were led by Khalid bin Al-Waleed and Abu Sufyan. So the
Messenger of Allâh
implored his Lord saying: ‘O Allâh, they (i.e. the idolaters)
should not be higher (i.e. in position or in power) than us (i.e.
the Muslims). Therefore ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab and some of the
Emigrants fought the idolaters till they drove them down the
In Al-Maghazi — a book
by Al-Umawi — it is stated that the idolaters went up the
mountain. So the Messenger of Allâh said to Sa‘d: "Drive
them off." "How can I drive them off by myself (i.e.
without anyone to assist)." But the Messenger of Allâh repeated the phrase
three times. Sa‘d then took an arrow out of his quiver, shot it
at one of them and killed him. He said: "Then I took another
one I know (to be good) and I shot with it another man. Then I
took a third I know and killed a third one. Consequently they
climbed down the mountain. I said to myself, ‘this must be a
blessed arrow.’ I put it in my quiver." He kept it with
him till he died. His children kept it with them ever after.<
Mutilation of the Martyrs:
That was the last attack made by
the idolaters against the Prophet . Being almost certain of
his death, the idolaters returned to their camp and started
preparations to go back to Makkah. Some of them involved
themselves in mutilating the killed Muslims, and so did their
women. Women and men cut off the ears, the noses, the genitals of
the martyrs. They even cut open their bellies. Hind bin ‘Utbah
— for instance — ripped open the liver of Hamzah and chewed
it; but finding it unpleasant, she spat it out. She even made the
ears and noses of Muslims into anklets and necklaces.<
Two incidents occurred during
the last hours of the fight. Which revealed for certain how far
the Muslims were ready to fight and sacrifice in the way of Allâh:
- Ka‘b bin Malik said: I
was one of those Muslims who fought in Uhud and witnessed
the polytheists’ act of barbarity in mutilating the
dead bodies, but I passed them because I couldn’t stand
it. Then I saw an armed stout idolater pass through the
Muslims and say: "Gather them up and combine them in
the way that sheep are gathered and slaughtered."
Similarly I saw an armed Muslim waiting for him. I walked
towards them till I stood behind him. Comparing both of
them, I found that the disbeliever was better than the
other in arms and figure. I kept on watching them till
they were engaged in single combat. The Muslim thrust at
the disbeliever with his sword that went down his hip and
split it into two. When the Muslim unveiled his face, he
said: "What about that, Ka‘b. I am Abu Dujana."
- Some Muslim women came to
the battlefield when the fight was over. Anas said: I saw
‘Aishah bint Abu Bakr - may Allah be pleased with him -
with Umm Sulaim. Their garments were gathered up so I
could see their anklets. They carried water bags on their
shoulders and emptied them into the mouths of people. Then they would go back to fill them and
come back to do the same. ‘Umar said: "Umm Saleet
used to carry water bags to us on Uhud Day."
When Umm Aiman, who was one of
those Muslim women who saw the defeated Muslim fighters entering
Madinah, she started throwing dust at their faces rebukingly
saying: "Here is a spinning wheel, take it! and give up
carrying swords." Then she raced to the battlefield. There
she watered the wounded. Hibban bin Al-‘Arqa shot an arrow at
her, she fell down and her clothes were lifted up. Seeing that,
the enemy of Allâh, burst into laughter. That sight upset the
Messenger of Allâh ,
so he gave Sa‘d bin Abi Waqqas an arrow lacking an arrow-head
and said "Shoot it". Sa‘d shot it, it pierced the
idolater’s throat. He fell down and some parts of his body were
revealed. The Messenger of Allâh then laughed so much
that his molars could be seen. Sa‘d avenged her and Allâh
responded to her supplication.
As soon as the Messenger of Allâh
reached the defile,
‘Ali bin Abu Talib went out and filled his water container with
water from Al-Mihras. ‘Al-Mihras’ is said to be
hollow (concaved) rock containing plenty of water. It was also
said that it is a water spring in Uhud mountain. Anyway, ‘Ali
brought that water to the Messenger of Allâh to drink. Finding that
it smelt bad he refused to drink it, but only washed the blood
off his face and poured some of it over his head saying: Allâh’s
Wrath is great on those who besmeared His Messenger’s face with
Sahl said: "By Allâh, I
know who washed the wound of the Messenger of Allâh and who poured out water
for him and what (substances) his wound was treated with: His
daughter Fatimah washed it, whereas ‘Ali poured water out of
the container. When Fatimah realized that water increased the
flow of blood, she took a piece of straw mat, burnt it a little
and stuck it to the wound so blood ceased flowing."<
Muhammad bin Maslamah brought
him fresh water to drink. The Prophet drank and supplicated
Allâh to provide him with good things. Owing to
the wounds and their bad effects on his body, the Messenger of
Allâh led his
followers in prayer in a sitting posture and so did the Muslims.<
When the preparations of the
idolaters for departure came to an end, Abu Sufyan went up the
mountain and called out: "Is Muhammad among you?" They
did not answer him. Then he asked "Is Ibn Abi Quhafah (i.e.
Abu Bakr) among you?" They did not answer. He asked again:
"Is ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab among you?" They did not
answer him; for the Prophet forbade them answering
him. He only asked about those three. That is because he and his
people knew quite well that the call to Islam depended to a large
degree on those men. Abu Sufyan then said: "As for those
three, we have relieved you of." ‘Umar could not help but
talking, so he said, "O enemy of Allâh, those whom you have
just mentioned, I tell you that they are still alive. Allâh has
maintained what you hate." Abu Sufyan answered: "The
mutilation of your killed is something I did not order it; but it
did not displease me." Then he shouted: "Hubal (an idol),
let it be sublime!" The Prophet said: "Why do you
not reply?" "What shall we say?" They asked him.
"Say: Allâh is more Sublime and Exalted and Mightier as
He said: "Al-‘Uzza (i.e.
an idol) is ours but you have no ‘Uzza." "Why do you
not reply?" The Prophet said. "What shall
we say?" They inquired. He said: "Say Allâh is our
Protector, but you have no protector."
Abu Sufyan said: "Well
deeds! Today is a vengeance for Badr Day. This for that. War is
attended with alternate success." ‘Umar’s reply was:
"No. They are not the same. Our killed men are housed in
Paradise; but yours are in Fire."
Then Abu Sufyan said: "Come
on, ‘Umar!" The Messenger of Allâh said: "Go and see
what the matter is." He went there. Abu Sufyan asked him:
"I beseech you by Allâh’s Name to tell me the truth: Have
we killed Muhammad "
‘Umar said: "O Allâh, ‘No’ and now he is listening to
you words." He said: "For me, you are more truthful
than Ibn Qami’a, and even more reliable."
Ibn Ishaq said: When Abu Sufyan
and those who were with him were leaving he called out notifying:
"We will meet again at Badr next year." The Messenger
of Allâh said to
one of his men: "Say: ‘Yes, it is an appointment for both
Later on, the Messenger of Allâh
bin Abi Talib to trace them out. He said to him: "Pursue
them and see what they are going to do, and what they aim at. If
they dismount horses and ride on camels’ back, this means that
they are heading for Makkah; but if they ride horses and lead
camels unmounted, they are leaving for Madinah. By the One, in
Whose Hand my soul is, if they attacked Madinah I would march to
them there and I would fight them." ‘Ali said: "I
went out and traced them to see what they were up to. I saw them
mounting camels and leaving the horses unmounted. They were
heading for Makkah."
After the departure of the
Quraishites, people went out to check the identity of the killed
and the wounded. Zaid bin Thabit said: "The Messenger of Allâh
sent me on Uhud Day
to seek Sa‘d bin Ar-Rabî‘ and said: "When you see him,
say: ‘peace be upon you from me.’ and say to him ‘the
Messenger of Allâh
says: How do you feel?’" Zaid said: "I started
wandering about checking the killed till I came across Sa‘d
when he was dying — with about seventy strokes or stabs of a
sword, a spear and an arrow in his body.So I said: "O Sa‘d,
the Messenger of Allâh sends you his greetings.
and says ‘peace be upon you, tell me how do you feel?’"
Sa‘d said: "And let peace be upon the Messenger of Allâh , too. Tell him, I smell
the scent of the Paradise. And tell the Helpers, my people, ‘you
shall not be excused before Allâh if the Messenger of Allâh is hurt and your eyes
are blinking’ (i.e. you are still alive and not dead)."
Then he died.
They came across Al-Usairim —
‘Amr bin Thabit, whom they had already urged to embrace Islam
but refused. They saw him among the wounded on the verge of close
death. "What has he come here for? We have parted with him
and he was still too obdurate to accept Islam as his religion".
They asked him: "What made you come here? Is it out of zeal
to defend your people or is it because of an inclination to
Islam?" He said: "It is (certainly) an inclination to
Islam. I believe in Allâh and in His Messenger. I have fought
with the Messenger of Allâh till I have got what you
see," and then he immediately died. They told the Messenger
of Allâh about him.
Hearing that, he said: "He is one of the inhabitants of
Paradise." "Although he had not offered one single
prayer," narrated Abu Hurairah.
Qazman, who was found among the
wounded, fought heroically, and killed seven or eight idolaters.
He was weakened by the wounds he had sustained, they carried him
to the habitation of Bani Zufr. The Muslims gave him glad tidings
of the Paradise. But he said: "By Allâh I have fought out
of a zeal to my people. Had it not been for that I would have
never fought." When his wounds worsened he committed suicide.
The Messenger of Allâh had already said
whenever he was mentioned to him: "He is an inhabitant of
Fire." This is the end of those who fight for a
national cause or in a way other than that of raising up the Word
of Allâh, though they fought under the banner of Islam or even
in the army of the Messenger of Allâh or of his Companions.
Contrary to Qazman there was a
Jew of Bani Tha‘labah among the killed. He said to his people,
"O folk people of Jews! By Allâh you have already known
that it is imperative to support Muhammad ." They said: "Today
is Saturday." He said: "There is no Saturday for you."
He took his sword and the war equipment and said: "If I were
killed, my property should be put at Muhammad ’s disposal". Then
next morning he kept on fighting till he was killed. The
Messenger of Allâh
said about him, "Mukhaireeq is the best Jew."<
Burial of the Martyrs:
The Messenger of Allâh supervised the martyrs’
burial and said: "I bear witness that anyone who is wounded
in the way of Allâh, Allâh will resurrect him with his wound
bleeding a liquid which is blood-like in colour but musk-like in
Some of the Companions carried
their men killed in the war to Madinah, but the Messenger of Allâh
ordered that they
should be sent back in order to be buried where they were killed.
He ordered that they should not be washed but buried as they were
after stripping them off their armours and leather clothes. He
used to bury every two or three martyrs together in one grave and
even join two men in one garment while saying: "Who is the
more learned of the Qur’ân?" and he would commit him to
earth first. He would say: "I bear witness to those on the
Day of Resurrection." He buried both ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr
bin Haram and ‘Amr bin Al-Jamuh in one grave due to the
affection they used to possess to each other.<
They missed the coffin of
Hanzalah, they sought it and found that it was on a spot nearby
with water dripping off it. The Messenger of Allâh told his Companions that
the angels were washing him and said: "Ask his wife".
They asked her and she confirmed that he had been in a state of
ceremonial impurity. That was why Hanzalah was called ‘Ghaseel
Al-Malâ’ikah’ (i.e. the one washed by the angels).<
When the Messenger of Allâh saw how his uncle and
foster brother, Hamzah, was mutilated, he was extremely grieved.
When his aunt Safiyah came to see her brother Hamzah, the
Messenger of Allâh
ordered her son Az-Zubair to dismiss her in order not to see what
happened to her brother. She refused and said, "But why
should I go away. I have been informed that they have mutilated
him. But so long as it is in the way of Allâh, whatever happens
to him satisfies us. I say: Allâh is Sufficient and I will be
patient if Allâh wills." She approached, looked at him and
supplicated Allâh for him and said: "To Allâh we all
belong and to Him we will verily return." and she implored
Allâh to forgive him. Then the Messenger of Allâh ordered that he should
be buried with ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh — who was his nephew as
well as his foster brother.
Ibn Mas‘ud said: We have never
seen the Messenger of Allâh weeping so much as he
was for Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib. He directed him towards Al-Qiblah,
then he stood at his funeral and sobbed his heart out.<
The sight of the martyrs was
extremely horrible and heart-breaking. Describing Hamzah’s
funeral, Khabbab said: "No shroud long enough was available
for Hamzah except a white-darkish garment. When they covered his
head with it, it was too short to cover his feet. Similarly if
they covered his feet his head would be revealed. Finally they
covered his head with it and put some plant called ‘Al-Idhkhir’
to cover his feet."
Al-Imam Ahmad reported that when
it was Uhud Day and the time that the idolaters returned, the
Messenger of Allâh
form rows as for prayer) so that I offer thanks and
praise to my Lord, the Great and the All-Mighty."
So they stood in rows behind him.
Then he said:
"O Allâh, no one can
withhold what You permit or permit what You withhold. No
one can guide whom You decree to go astray or make go
astray the one whom You guide. No one can grant
provisions you have withheld and no one can withhold what
you grant. No one can near what You ordained to be
distant, or detach what You decree to be close. O Allâh,
spread onto all of us Your Mercy, Your Grace, and
Allâh, I implore You to grant me permanent bliss that
neither changes nor vanishes. O Allâh, You Alone we seek
for Help at hardships. You Alone we resort to for
security on a day of terror. O Allâh, to You Alone I
resort to protect us from the evils of Your grants (i.e.
the evils they may lead us to) and from the evils of Your
deprivation. O Allâh, make us love Faith and make it
pleasant and beloved wholeheartedly by us! Make
disbelief, ungodliness and disobedience detestable to us.
Let us be among those who are rightly guided. O Allâh,
make us live as Muslims and cause us to die as Muslims;
and make us join with the righteous but not with the
disgraced and misled ones. O Allâh, make Your enmity
befall the disbelievers, who belie Your Messenger and
divert from Your righteous way. O Allâh, let Your wrath,
Your chastisement and Your enmity befall the
disbelievers, and those on whom You sent down the Book.
Let them be afflicted with war decreed by You. O Allâh,
the Author of Truth."
After committing all the martyrs
to earth, and after offering praise and supplication to Allâh,
the Messenger of Allâh went back to Madinah.
On his way back, matchless
examples of love and devotion were revealed by the truthful women
believers; in no way less great than the men’s heroic deeds in
Hamnah bint Jahsh met the
Messenger of Allâh
on the way back, and he announced the death of her brother —
‘Abdullah bin Jahsh — to her. She said: "To Allâh we
belong and to Him we will verily return. I ask Allâh’s
forgiveness." Then he announced the death of her maternal
uncle Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib. She said: "To Allâh we
belong and to Him we will verily return. I ask Allâh’s
forgiveness." But when he announced the death of her husband
Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair to her, she shouted and woed. Seeing her
doing so, the Messenger of Allâh said: "The woman’s
husband is extremely dear to her."
He passed by a woman of Bani
Dinar whose husband, father and brother were all killed at Uhud.
When their death announced, she said: "How is the Messenger
of Allâh ?"
They said: "Well indeed. O mother of so... Thanks for Allâh;
he is well and as good as you desire." She said: "Let
me see him." They pointed at him. Seeing him she said:
"All misfortunes are nothing so long as you are safe."<
Umm Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh came
running to see the Prophet . At that time her son
was holding the rein of his mare. Seeing his mother, he said to
the Prophet : "O
Messenger of Allâh .
This is my mother." The Prophet said: "She is
welcome"; and he stopped and waited for her. When she drew
near, he consoled her, for her killed son ‘Amr bin Mu‘adh.
But she said: "So long as I see you are safe, my misfortune
will certainly go into oblivion." Then the Messenger of Allâh
for the relatives of those who were killed at Uhud and said:
"Cheer up! Umm Sa‘d and bear good tidings to their kindred
that all their people killed in the battle are comrades in
Paradise and they are intercessors for all their kinsfolk."
She replied, "O Messenger of Allâh, we are satisfied. Who
would cry on them after this cheerful news?" Then she
resumed saying: "O Messenger of Allâh, invoke Allâh (for
those who stayed behind)" He said: "O Allâh keep
sorrow off their hearts! And console them with their misfortunes.
Compensate those who stayed behind with goodness and welfare."<
In the evening of that day — i.e.
Saturday, the seventh of Shawwal, 3rd year A.H. — the Messenger
arrived in Madinah. As soon as he reached his house, he handed
his sword to his daughter Fatimah and said: "O daughter,
wash the blood off this sword. By Allâh it has been helpful to
me today." ‘Ali bin Abi Talib handed her his sword and
said: "And wash the blood of this sword too. By Allâh, it
has been helpful to me today." So the Messenger of Allâh said: "Sahl bin
Haneef and Abu Dujana have been as courageous as you are in the
Most of the narrations confirmed
that seventy Muslims were killed and most of them, sixty-five,
Helpers; forty-one of whom were from Khazraj and twenty-four from
Aws. This, besides one Jew and four Emigrants.
As for the polytheists, twenty-two
of them were killed, but some versions speak of thirty-seven;
after all, Allâh knows best.
On Saturday night, the eighth of
Shawwal, and after their return from Uhud, the Muslims spent that
night in an emergency case — though they were dead-beat,
extremely exhausted. They stayed on the alert, and spent that
night guarding the outlets and inlets of Madinah. They were
specially busy guarding their general leader, the Messenger of
Allâh for fear
that some suspects could commit an unexpected folly.
Hamrâ’ Al-Asad Invasion:
The Messenger of Allâh on his part, spent the
night pondering over the situation. He feared that the idolaters
might think — while they were still on their way to Makkah —
of reversing their way and diverting to Madinah after they had
realized that they had availed nothing of that victory. They
might regret and decide to invade Madinah as a compensation.
Therefore the Messenger of Allâh was determined to go out
in pursuit of the Makkan army.
The Prophet called out unto people
and ordered them to march to encounter the enemy of Islam. That
was on Sunday morning — next day to Uhud — the eighth of
Shawwal. He said: "Nobody will march to the fight except
those who have already participated in Uhud fight." ‘Abdullah
bin Ubai said: "I will march out with you." "No,"
said the Prophet .
Whilst the Muslims were
suffering a lot from painful pains and deep anxiety, they
responded to his call positively. Jabir bin ‘Abdullah implored
the Prophet to
allow him join them in that fresh invasion on account that he
always had a liking to witness all the battles that the Prophet was involved in. He had
not participated in Uhud because his father asked him to stay in
Madinah with his sisters . And he was granted his wish.
The Muslims marched out until
they reached a place called Hamra’ Al-Asad — about eight
miles from Madinah. He encamped there. In that place Ma‘bad bin
Abi Ma‘bad came to the Messenger of Allâh and professed Islam.
Some people said that he remained an idolater; he simply desired
to give the Messenger some advice out of abidance by a covenant
between Khuza‘ah (his tribe) and Bani Hashim. He said "O
Muhammad ! By Allâh,
we feel great sorrow for what had happened to you and to your
Companions. We really hope you will not suffer again." So,
the Messenger of Allâh suggested that he
overtake Abu Sufyan and discourage him from pursuing his evil
The Messenger’s fears of a
possible return of the idolaters proved to be absolutely true.
For no sooner had the idolaters dismounted and encamped at Ar-Rawhâ’
— a place thirty-six miles from Madinah, than they started
reproaching one another. A group of them said to another one:
"You did nothing. You broke down their force but you left
them. There are still some distinguished men among them who will
probably gather people up to fight you again. So let us go back
and annihilate them and crush down their forces."
It was in fact a hasty decision
taken by shallow-minded people who misjudged the potential power
and morale on both parties, that is why an eminent leader of
Quraish, Safwan bin Omaiyah, tried to dissuade his people from
pursuing that venture, saying: "O people. Do not do such a
thing! For I fear that he will gather up those who had stayed
behind and did not share in Uhud. Go back home as winners. For I
am not sure of what turn will the consequences take if you get
involved in such a fight. It might be to your prejudice in the
final place." Notwithstanding that weighty argument, the
majority of the polytheists were determined to embark on that
Ma‘bad bin Abu Ma‘bad
meanwhile arrived on the scene and tried to exaggerate the danger
awaiting them in order to thwart their plan, he said: "Muhammad
has marched to meet
you with a large host of fighters, I have never seen something
similar to it before. He has mustered all the troops who have
tarried and did not share in Uhud. They surely regret what they
have missed and want to compensate for it now. Their hearts are
filled with hate and resentment." Abu Sufyan said: "Woe
to you! What do you suggest?" He said: "By Allâh, I
see that you would not leave till he comes and you see the heads
of their horses; or till the vanguard of his army turns up to you
from behind that hill."
Abu Sufyan said: "By Allâh,
we have reached a common consent to crush down the Muslims and
their power." The man, once more with an implied warning,
advised him to stop it.
In the light of this news, the
resolution and determination of the Makkan army failed and panic
and terror took firm hold of them. They consequently deemed it
safest to complete there withdrawal back to Makkah. They,
however, as an alternative, started a hostile nerve propaganda
aiming at dissuading the Muslims army from pursuing them. A
caravan belonging to ‘Abd Qais happened to pass by towards
Madinah. Abu Sufyan, in the context of his propaganda, asked them
to communicate a message to Muhammad to the effect that the
Makkans had rallied their ranks to annihilate the Messenger and
his Companions, in return Abu Sufyan promised to give the people
of the caravan loads of raisins at the forum of ‘Ukaz the
The people of the caravan
conveyed the message to the Messenger of Allâh at Hamrâ’ Al-Asad,
but to no effect, on the contrary, Abu Sufyan’s words augmented
them in Faith. Allâh says:
"… And they said:
‘Allâh (Alone) is Sufficient for us, and He is the
Best Disposer of affairs (for us). So they turned with
Grace and Bounty from Allâh. No harm touched them; and
they followed the good Pleasure of Allâh. And Allâh is
the Owner of Great Bounty." [3:173,174]
After the arrival of the caravan
on Sunday, the Messenger of Allâh stayed at Hamrâ’ Al-Asad
for three days — Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday — 9-11
Shawwal, 3 A.H. and then returned to Madinah. Before his return,
he took Abu ‘Azza Al-Jumahi as a prisoner of war. Incidentally,
this man had also been captured at Badr but on account of his
poverty, and the large family he supported, the Prophet had been gracious enough
to release him on condition that he would not involve himself in
war against the Muslims again. Abu ‘Azza did not keep his
promise and took part in Uhud hostilities on the side of the
polytheists. Here again he implored Muhammad for pardon but the
latter told him that a believer wouldn’t be taken twice in the
same snare. He then deservedly merited the sentence of death
which was executed by Az-Zubair or, in another version, by ‘Asim
A Makkan spy, called Mu‘awiyah
bin Al-Mugheerah bin Abi Al-‘As, was sentenced to death too.
This spy was the grandfather of ‘Abdul Malik bin Marwan on his
mother side. When the idolaters went back after Uhud, Mu‘awiyah
came to his paternal cousin ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan - may ALlah be
pleased with him -. ‘Uthman gave him shelter — after securing
the Prophet ’s
permission — on condition that if he was caught there after
three days, he would be killed. But he did not comply with it, so
when the Muslim army left Madinah, he stayed there for more than
three days during which he was spying for Quraish. So when the
army returned, Mu‘awiyah fled out of Madinah. The Messenger of
Allâh , on this
account, ordered Zaid bin Harithah and ‘Ammar bin Yasir to
pursue him and kill him. So he was killed.
Undoubtedly, the invasion of
Hamrâ’ Al-Asad is not a separate invasion, but rather a part,
or more specifically, a sequel to Uhud.
That was Uhud Invasion with all
its stages and details. It has for long been discussed by
scholars and men of research. Was it a defeat or not?
Doubtlessly, the military superiority in the second phase of the
battle was in favour of the polytheists who could successfully
direct the steering mechanism of hostilities and inflict heavy
losses in lives on the Muslims. Admittedly, a part of the
believers were clearly defeated, but this could never be
considered a Makkan victory.
The Makkan army failed to occupy
the camp of the Muslims. The greater bulk of the Madinese army,
chaos and confusion notwithstanding, did not take to escape, on
the contrary they showed matchless and heroic resistance and
managed to gather themselves again around their headquarters
fighting bravely and courageously. They, moreover, did not allow
the Makkans to run after them in pursuit. Neither Muslim captives
were taken nor spoils were gained by the Makkans. The enemies of
Islam were also too cowardly to conduct the third phase of war,
and impress their superiority on the battlefield, on the
contrary, they were in hot haste to evacuate the field even
before the Muslims did. Madinah itself, the capital of the
Muslims, was only a stone’s throw from the lines of the enemy,
and vulnerably exposed, yet the polytheists were not bold enough
to storm it to plunder its wealth or capture the Muslim women
These suggestive details in fact
support our argument that the event of Uhud was just a precious
occasion on which the Makkans managed only to inflict heavy
losses on the Muslims but failed to achieve their ultimate goals
of annihilating the Muslim army in the process of their
encompassment operation. After all, it is not unusual for
conquerors to sustain such casualties and losses, but these could
under no circumstances be regarded as victory for the hostile
The incident of Hamrâ’ Al-Asad
is interesting in this regard. It is a curious sight indeed of a
victorious army in retreat for fear of disgrace and defeat, and
the crestfallen and crippled group of Muslims in pursuit.
Uhud Battle in the final
judgement was just one phase of military activities in the whole
process of war between two hostile parties each of whom earned
their legitimate portion of both success and failure and then
desisted further engagement but without cowardly escape or
resigned surrender. In this sense, this battle could be rightly
regarded as an inseparable war.
In this context, Allâh says:
"And don’t be weak
in the pursuit of the enemy; if you are suffering (hardships)
then surely, they (too) are suffering (hardships) as you
are suffering, but you have a hope from Allâh (for the
reward, i.e. Paradise) that for which they hope not."
The verse explicitly identifies
both attitudes as regards losses and hardships as identical. Both
parties concluded the war operations and went back neither
victorious nor vanquished.
The Observations of the Noble
Qur’ân on the Battle of Uhud:
Some Qur’ânic verses were
revealed to shed light on the most decisive phases of the battle
successively, adduce quite clearly the cause that led to that
heavy loss, and illustrate the vulnerable areas that were still
persisting in the souls of some believers as regards their duties
in forging a decisive attitude with respect to the noble
objectives for which the Muslim Community, was created and was
supposed to accomplish.
The Noble Qur’ân also spoke
about the attitude of the pretenders to Faith and made clear the
hostility and hatred that they harboured against Allâh and His
Messenger. The Words of Allâh managed as well to erase all
traces of ambiguities and insinuations, raised by the hypocrites
and their allies, the Jews — the authors of conspiracy and
intrigue hatching — and which were still in active operation in
the hearts of some weak-of-heart Muslims.
The laudable judgement and long-sought
objectives that were attributable to the battle of Uhud, were
also another topic for the Noble Qur’ân to dwell on at length.
Sixty verses relevant to the battle were revealed giving full
account of the first phase of the battle:
"And (remember) when
you (Muhammad ) left your
household in the morning to post the believers at their
stations for the battle (of Uhud)." [3:121]
And to end in a comprehensive
commentary on its results and moralities:
"Allâh will not leave
the believers in the state in which you are now, until He
distinguishes the wicked from the good. Nor will Allâh
disclose to you the secrets of the Ghaib (unseen),
but Allâh chooses of His Messengers whom He pleases. So
believe in Allâh and His Messengers. And if you believe
and fear Allâh, then for you there is a great reward."
Lessons and Moralities:
Ibn Al-Qaiyim has made a pointed
reference to the battle of Uhud and given full elucidation of the
Divine benefits and moralities that resulted from it. Some Muslim
scholars, on the authority of Ibn Hajar, said: The reverse in
Uhud resulted from the neglect on the part of the archers of the
explicit command of the Prophet , and leaving the spot
which they were ordered to safeguard to the end. In other words,
the success of the Muslims depends upon their obedience to the
Prophet . As long as
they carry out his behests, Allâh will help them in facing all
kinds of odds. But when they will set aside his commands in their
pursuit of worldly riches, they are bound to come to grief.
Another relevant issue of great significance says that it is
customary for Prophets to be tried with different adversities;
nevertheless, the final outcome is positively in their favour.
Should the Muslims be victorious all the time, great many
pretenders to Faith will enter the fold of Islam, and
consequently the clear line of demarcation between true believers
and hypocrites will become blurred. Contrarily, if the Muslims
were to be defeated all the time, the final objective of the
ministry of Prophets will not be effected. It is wise then to
combine both success and failure so that sifting between true
Muslims and hypocrites could be realized.
In the aftermath of the battle
of Uhud, the hypocrites disclosed their real intentions in words
and in deeds, consequently, the Muslims got to realize the
existence of those wicked elements working secretly in their own
homeland; and of course there would be appropriate measures to be
taken in due course of time.
A third point in this context
refers to purposeful deferment of victory in some areas in order
to check the pride of the soul and teach the believers how to
observe full patience in times of adversity. Trials and tests are
provided by Allâh in order that the true believers could
deservedly occupy their abode in the blessed Hereafter.
Martyrdom, the highest ranks that the true friends of Allâh
could occupy, is provided by Allâh to function as a passport,
granted by the Lord, leading to Paradise. In brief, fight in the
cause of Allâh is a golden opportunity for the true believers to
have their sins effaced, and a Divinely-devised event for the
disbelievers and enemies of Allâh to face destruction and
annihilation in recompense for their disbelief, tyranny and
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